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Songul Sever Mutlu and Ece Agan

red book. Reston Publ., Reston, VA Basavaraj, S.H. 1984 Influence of pinching and growth retardants on growth and development of marigold cv. African Giant. MSc Thesis, Univ. Agr. Sci., Dharwad, India Basra, A.S. 2000 Plant growth regulators in

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Rajendra P. Maurya* and Champa lal Nagda*

In a field experiment, uniform sized corms of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L. cv. Oscar) were planted in last week of October at a distance of 30 cm. between rows and 20 cm. between plants. The effect of GA (50, 100 ppm), Cycocel (500, 1000) and NAA (50, 100 ppm) on gladiolus plants. It was concluded that foliar application of 100 ppm GA3 at 45 days after corm planting has shown superiority in all vegetative, floral characters and corm & cormel yield viz., plant height (128.53 cm), number of leaves (8.57) per plant, spike length (108.33 cm), spike weight (128.87 g), number of florets (17.60) per spike, size of second florets (15.07 cm), number of spikes (1.67) per plant, size of largest corm (7.52 cm), number of corms (1.80) per plant, number of cormels (11.53) per plant and weight of corms (79.33 g) per plant. Whereas, a highest longevity of florets opening or survival on spike (20.33 days) was recorded in 1000 ppm Cycocel.

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Xiaoling Cao and F.A. Hammerschlag

As part of a program to develop transgenic highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, studies were conducted to determine optimum conditions for high efficiency shoot regeneration from leaf explants of in vitro-propagated shoot cultures. The effect of either thidiazuron at 1 or 5 μM, or zeatin riboside at 20 μM, and two lit levels (18 ± 5 or 55 ± 5 μmol·m-2·s-1) on shoot organogenesis were investigated. With the exception of `Bluecrop', which did not regenerate shoots, maximum shoot regeneration of 13, 12.7, 12.6 and 4.6 shoots per explant for cultivars Duke, Georgiagem, Sierra, and Jersey, respectively, occured on regeneration medium with zeatin riboside and under a light intensity of 55 μmol·m-2·s-1. Whereas `Duke' regenerated equally well on regeneration medium with either zeatin riboside or 5 μM thidiazuron, regeneration frequencies for `Georgiagem' and `Sierra' were significantly higher on zeatin riboside. A light intensity of 55 μmol·m-2·s-1 significantly increased regeneration of cultivars Duke, Jersey, and Sierra on zeatin riboside, but inhibited regeneration of Duke on 5 μM thidazuron.

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Wen Chy Chang and Patricia Branch

Zantesdeschia has been grown for cut-flower production for many years, but more recently it has been grown as a containerized plant. Problems with height control and disease, however, have limited Zantesdeschia production in warmer climates. Our objectives were to evaluate paclobutrazol and uniconazole on control of plant growth of three Zantesdeschia species and evaluate four preplant treatments for preventing Erwinia infection on rhizomes. Paclobutrazol at 1 mg a.i. gave the best control of flower height, foliage height, and plant width. After 20 d in a postharvest chamber, plants drenched with paclobuturazol at 2 mg a.i. and uniconazole at 6 mg a.i. were still suitable plants, plants drenched at 3 and 4 mg a.i. paclobutrazol remained short, and plants drenched at 2 and 4 mg a.i.uniconazole became tall and weak, with flower stems breaking over. Rhizomes were dipped in dimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides, sodium hypochlorite, 4% formaldehyde, or streptomycin. Streptomycin provided the best control against Erwinia infection followed by formaldehyde. Dimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides and sodium chloride provided the poorest protection.

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Anna Perkins Nina Bassuk

Budbreak inhibition and poor overwinter survival (OS) limit successful cutting propagation of Acer rubrum October Glory, A. rubrum Red Sunset, Hamamelis vernalis, H. virginiana and Stewartia pseudocamellia. Localized blanching (banding) of the cutting on the stock plant; a range of 3 IBA concentrations, and foliar spray application of: 1% silver thiosulfate(STS), STS followed ten days later by Gibberellin, GA4/7:250ppm(STS GA),50ppm thidiazuron (TDZ) and TDZ followed by GA4/7 (TDZ GA)were tested for increasing growth and overwinter survival.. Carbohydrates were analyzed in cuttings which did and didn't grow. A. rubrum October Glory*, and Hamamelis spp all had increased OS for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum Red Sunset demonstrated a similar trend. Hamamelis spp. had significant increase in carbohydrates for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum October Glory' exhibited the same trend. S. pseudocamellia did not have increased OS with growth. and showed no increases in carbohydrates with growth, but the cuttings that didn't grow had at least 93 % more carbohydrates than the other species analyzed. All species had higher OS when stored in the 3° C cooler, than in the fluctuating cold frame. Banding increased growth of A. rubrum October Glory, and H. virginiana. IBA concentration affected growth of all species. STS increased growth of H. virginiana and S. pseudocamellia. GA4/7 increased growth of all cuttings except A. rubrum October Glory.

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Ling Yu, Hongwei Chen, Peipei Hong, Hongli Wang and Kefeng Liu

. Table 2. Bud differentiation rate and proliferation rate from stem nodes of Salvia splendens when cultured in medium with various combinations of plant growth regulators (NAA, 6-BA, IBA). Table 3. Test of between-subjects effects. Induction of roots

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L.G. Sanabria and S.E. Newman

Various uniconazole (Sumagic™) rates were either sprayed or drenched alone or in combination with 6-BA and GA4+7 (Promalin™) or dikegulac-sodium (Atrinal™) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis `Brilliant'. The rates of uniconazole were 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg a.i./L; 6-BA and GA4+7, 25 mg a.i./L each; and dikegulac-sodium 1000 mg a.i./L.

Plant height was reduced by uniconazole when drenched at rates as low as 5 mg/L and 15 mg/L when sprayed. Dikegulac-sodium slightly counteracted the effects of uniconazole. Uniconazole activity was increased when either sprayed or drenched with application of 6-BA and GA4+7 resulting in greater height reduction.

Transpiration and stomatal diffusive resistance of plants drenched with uniconazole alone was erratic; however, when uniconazole was sprayed or drenched and mixed with 6–BA and GA4+7 or dikegulac-sodium transpiration increased.

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S. Hanif-Khan, P.J. Stoffella, J.K. Brecht, H.J. McAuslane, R.C. Bullock, C.A. Powell and R. Yokomi

External and internal tomato irregular ripening (TIR) symptoms have been associated with the feeding of silverleaf whitefly (SLW), Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring. Soil drench application of gibberellic acid (GA3) (100 ppm, Trial 1 and 2) and cycocel (CCC) (2000 ppm, Trial 1; 1000 ppm, Trial 2) were applied to dwarf cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in the presence and absence of SLW to mimic the TIR disorder induced by the SLW. Application of GA3 induced external and internal TIR symptoms similar to the SLW-induced disorder in `Florida Petite'. There were essentially no TIR symptoms in fruit treated with CCC, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. In Trial 1, internal white tissue in GA3, SLW, and CCC treatments was expressed in 97%, 95%, and 4% of the total fruit, respectively. Incidence of external TIR symptom was highest (56%) in the GA3 plus SLW treatment. In Trial 2, GA3 application in the presence (83%) or absence (85%) of SLW resulted in the highest incidence of fruit with internal white tissue. External TIR symptoms induced by GA3 in the presence and absence of SLW were reduced with CCC application. These results suggest that the TIR disorder in tomato is induced by the SLW may be a GA3-regulated disorder.

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Duane W. Greene

142 WORKSHOP 19 (Abstr. 688-690) Opportunities and Challenges in the Development and Registration of Plant Growth Regulators Wednesday, 26 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

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William B. Miller

Experiments conducted over 3 years have indicated the efficacy of preplant paclobutrazol or flurprimidol corm soaks for leaf and scape growth control in potted freesia (Freesia hybrida). A range of cultivars subjected to 30- to 60-min soaks in 60 to 120 mg·L−1 paclobutrazol and 10- to 30-min soaks in 10 to 30 mg·L−1 flurprimidol resulted in significant and commercially relevant height control without reducing the number of flowering scapes. Cultivars varied in their response to the plant growth regulators (PGRs), suggesting that individual grower trials will be necessary to develop an optimum treatment for each location.