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Jiaqi Lin, Weiyan Xuan, Yanpei Li, Shixiang Xiao, and Dou Feng

; Yamaguchi, 2008 ; Zentella et al., 2007 ). In higher plants, the biosynthesis pathway of GA is regulated by multiple enzymes ( Dayan et al., 2012 ). These enzymes include copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent -kaurene synthase (KS), ent -kaurene oxidase

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Thomas Eichert

) ( Eichert and Fernandez, 2012 ; Fernandez and Eichert, 2009 ). The pathways by which foliar-applied solutes penetrate leaf surface have been a matter of debate for a long time. One of the first concepts discussed in literature were “ectodesmata” ( Eichert

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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, Tripti Vashisth, Mercy A. Olmstead, James W. Olmstead, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

, Cambridge, MA). Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Mapper tool ( Kanehisa et al., 2017 ) was used to determine the metabolic pathways that involve the enzymes encoded by DEGs. Analysis of gene expression using real

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Suping Zhou, Marsha Palmer, Jing Zhou, Sarabjit Bhatti, Kevin J. Howe, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser

)] affected by the stress. These proteins are responsible for various functions thus affecting multiple cellular functional pathways. As a result of such systematic and multifaceted changes from gene expression to physiological and biochemical reactions in

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Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian, and Kenneth Michael Tilt

proportion of Pn; in other words, the metabolic pathway of Pn dominated in herbaceous peony species. Table 4. Mean petal anthocyanin values of nine wild herbaceous peony species (15 accessions) in the genus Paeonia . The petal anthocyanin

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Shutian Tao, Danyang Wang, Cong Jin, Wei Sun, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Fuyong Gao, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

widely believed that C4H catalyzes the conversion of trans -cinnamic acid to hydroxycinnamic acid, which is derived from phenylalanine by the action of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and located in the second step of the phenylpropanoid pathway ( Hahlbrock

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, and Bryan T. Vinyard

, neoxanthin, total lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-b) pathway carotenoids (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin + neoxanthin), lutein, and total carotenoid. Using SAS (Version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC) PROC GLIMMIX to obtain variance component estimates

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Holger Weichert, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, and Dieter Neumann

aqueous continuum across the sweet cherry fruit exocarp that is referred to as the polar pathway ( Weichert and Knoche, 2006a ). Polar pathways are formed by hydration and orientation of polar functional groups in the cuticular membrane [CM ( Beyer et al

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Lixiang Miao, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Jinping Xiao, Huiqin Zhang, Ming Jiang, Zuofa Zhang, Yuezhi Wang, and Guihua Jiang

‘Tudnew’ ( Silva et al., 2007 ). However, studies on strawberries have focused on the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and have no information on UDP-sugars. Fruits grown under blue plastic film had significantly more SUG than those grown under other

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Junjie Peng, Jingjia Du, Tiantian Chen, Xian Shui, Haizhi Liao, Xiaokai Lin, and Kaibing Zhou

metabolism is based on the glycolytic pathway (EMP) in plants, and phosphofructokinase is a key enzyme in EMP. There are two types of phosphofructokinase proteins that phosphorylate fructose-6-phosphate: pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate