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Dorfflung, 1985 ), and proteins ( Guy, 1990 ) occur during acclimation in plants. Carbohydrates may play an important role in osmotic adjustment contributing to avoidance of intracellular freezing. In addition to carbohydrates, plants accumulate proline

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growth and quality of drought-stressed creeping bentgrass, kentucky bluegrass, and tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ) and is associated with a reduction in water loss and increased osmotic adjustment ( Jiang and Huang, 2001 ; McCann and Huang, 2008

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findings also indicate eventual consequences for any tissue in which sugar is overexploited to achieve osmotic adjustment. When salinity is high, tension in the xylem is often high ( Fig. 3C ), and tension must be managed or xylem vessels will embolize

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osmotic adjustment of plant vegetative organs in response to water deficit ( Dichio et al., 2003 ; Joly and Zaerr, 1987 ; Ruíz-Sánchez et al., 1993 ; Saito and Terashima, 2004 ). Osmotic adjustment of apple fruit was observed in the early growth season

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significant difference in TR and a smaller reduction in g l by high EC treatment in the reproductive growth stage than in the vegetative growth stage might be because of the plant's osmotic adjustment after prolonged exposure to high EC. Osmotic adjustment

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involved in cell osmotic adjustment (OA) and protection of cell components during dehydration ( Zhang et al., 2009 ). Osmotic adjustment helps to maintain cell turgor, which can allow cell enlargement and plant growth during water stress; and it can allow

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considered to dissipate light thermally by a radiationless process ( Havaux and Tardy, 1999 ). Osmotic adjustment will occur under this circumstance to help maintain cell turgor and leaf water content within an operational range ( Corcuera et al., 2002 ). The

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treatments during the experiment, and RW plants were able to maintain osmotic adjustment ( Fig. 2C ). It is well known that osmotic adjustment involves the net accumulation of solutes in a cell in response to salinity ( Ghoulam et al., 2002 ). Consequently

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avoids drought by entering summer dormancy ( Ervin and Koski, 1998 ), sometimes referred to as quiescence. However, once adequate moisture is again available, plants will resume active growth ( Laude, 1953 ). Osmotic adjustment is another drought

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acids could improve plant stress tolerance through osmotic adjustment ( Serraj and Sinclair, 2002 ), and/or serve as storage forms of carbon and nitrogen for future use in absence or less stressful environments ( Greenway and Munns, 1980 ). About 18 free

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