Emulsions of degummed soybean (Glycine max L.) oil were compared to a petroleum oil emulsion for efficacy against winter populations of San Jose scale [Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock); Homoptera: Diaspididae] and European red mite [Panonychus ulmi (Koch); Acari: Tetranychidae] on dormant apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees and terrapin scale [Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Pergande); Homoptera: Coccidae] on dormant peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees. In laboratory tests, more than 94% of San Jose scale was killed on stems dipped for 1 second in 5.0% or 7.5% soybean oil or 5.0% petroleum oil. Mortality of terrapin scale exceeded 93% on peach stems dipped for 1 second in 7.5% soybean oil or 5.0% petroleum oil. No European red mite eggs survived on apple stems dipped for 1 second in 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% soybean oil, or 5.0% petroleum oil. In field tests, >95% of San Jose scale died on apple trees sprayed with one application of 2.5% petroleum oil or 5.0% soybean oil; two applications of these treatments or 2.5% soybean oil killed all San Jose scales. One or two applications of 2.5% petroleum oil or 5.0% soybean oil killed 85% and 98%, respectively, of the terrapin scales on peach trees. Soybean oil shows promise as a substitute for petroleum oil for winter control of three very destructive fruit tree pests.
Dilute sprays of 4, 8 and 16% Volck Supreme oil at dormant and repeated at delayed dormant to mask pear trees against psylla, Psylla pyricola (Foerster), oviposition delayed bloom slightly, while 2% applications in the Meld advanced bloom less than 1 day. Dormant pear branches dipped under laboratory conditions in oil at concentrations of 8% and higher caused injury to vegetative buds and slight injury to flowering buds. Single and repeat field applications of oil at 2, 4 and 8% caused no reduction of fruit set or cropping of ‘Anjou’, ‘Bartlett’, ‘Cornice’, ‘Bose’, and ‘Seckel’ pear trees, and in some cases increased fruit set on ‘Anjou’ trees. Hormonal analysis of oil-treated buds indicated a slight increase of gibberellin (GA) and a reduction of abscisic acid (ABA) levels.
Seven mutant maize genotypes with sweet corn backgrounds and 4 commercially grown sweet corn cultivars were harvested from 18-45 days after pollination (DAP). The lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol 2: 1 (v/v) and separated on a silicic acid column into neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids. Mutant genotypes influenced lipid development while inbred lines seemed important in amount of oil synthesized by the kernel. Crude oil and neutral lipids increased from 18-45 DAP while phospholipid and glycolipid values (mg/10 g fresh weight basis) were higher 23-28 DAP which is the prime processing time. During the developmental period studied, neutral lipids, phospholipids and glycolipids amount to 63, 20, and 12% respectively of the crude oil extracted. About 5% of the crude oil was lost in the separation procedure.
Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots and leaves of black currants (Ribes nigrum) and red currants (R. rubrum) in the Pacific northwestern U.S. Environmentally sound control measures are being sought as alternatives to sulfur or demethylation-inhibiting fungicides. This study examined the effect of mineral oil spray on powdery mildew infection in susceptible black and red currants. Mineral oil at 8 mL·L-1(8000 ppm) was applied to plants until runoff at 0-, 2-, and 4-week intervals from April through June in 1999 and 2000 on eight currant cultivars growing in Corvallis, Ore. Shoot and leaf surfaces were rated for powdery mildew incidence in early July both years. Oil applications significantly reduced mildew severity in vegetative growth as compared with that of the unsprayed control. The disease control from 2-week interval and 4-week interval oil applications was not significantly different.
In Fall 1990 and Spring 1991, the effects of four mulch colors, orange, yellow, aluminum, and white or black (fall or spring) were evaluated in the field on yields of `Sunny' tomato and numbers of insect vectors. In additional treatments, plants on the orange mulch were sprayed weekly with 2% mineral oil, and the yellow mulch was sprayed with soybean oil as needed during the season. In fall, plants were tallest (P ≤ 0.05) on the aluminum and yellow + oil treatments. The largest number of whiteflys (Bemisia argentifolii, Bellows and Perring) and the largest proportion of plants with virus symptoms were found on the white and yellow mulches. Fruit size and marketable yields were best with the yellow + oil treatment. In the spring, insect populations were low and only a few plants had virus symptoms. Plant heights, fruit size, and marketable yields were similar with all treatments.
The repellency and toxicity of a petroleum-based proprietary horticultural oil, Sunspray 6E Plus, was tested against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vapor-ariorum (Westwood), on greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Iceberg]. A 2% (v/v) aqueous spray repelled adult whiteflies for at least 11 days after spraying and it was toxic to newly hatched and third stage larval whiteflies. No phytotoxicity was observed when four weekly sprays of 1%, 2%, and 4% oil were applied.
Trials were conducted in 2004 to compare the effects of soybean oil formulations and concentrations on flowering and fruit thinning of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberries. Mature `Climax' bushes near Spring City, Tenn., were sprayed to runoff on 10 Feb. with water, or 9% soybean oil in the formulations TNsoy11, TNsoy12, TNsoy13, TNsoy14, or Golden Natur'l (GN). In a second trial, 3-year-old `Legacy' southern highbush plants at Spring Hill, Tenn., were sprayed on 11 Feb. with 0%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% GN. A similar trial was sprayed on 5 Mar. at Fletcher, N.C., using young plants of various Southern highbush cultivars. Each formulation of soybean oil (9%) delayed bud development and flower anthesis of `Climax' bushes. Bloom opening on `Legacy' bushes was delayed by 2 to 6 days with sprays of ≥9% GN, with higher concentrations causing more delay. However, flower bud mortality of `Legacy' plants was greater when sprayed with the higher oil concentrations. `Legacy' plants sprayed with 0%, 6%, and ≥9% oil had 0%, 30% and ≥70% bud mortality, respectively, at 36 days after treatment. `Legacy' plants sprayed with 12% and 15% oil sprays had an estimated 24% and 13%, respectively, of a crop load compared to the estimated 100% crop load on control plants. Flower bud development, flower bud mortality, crop load and berry size (across cultivars) of Southern highbush cultivars at Fletcher were not affected by oil treatments. Results were variable among trials, perhaps due to factors such as cultivars, timing of application (date), maturity of plants, environmental conditions, etc. There is potential for soybean oil formulations to be used as a chemical thinner as well as to delay blooming.
Oil dipping of potato tubers at 22°C inhibited solanine and chlorophyll formation by 92-97% and 93-100%, respectively. Oil dipping at 60°, 100°, and 160°C completely inhibited chlorophyll and solanine formation. The tuber sprouting of cvs. Russet Burbank, White Rose, and Red Pontiac was com pletely inhibited by oil dipping at all temperatures. There were no significant differences in the respiration of the peel and flesh of treated and control tubers.
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during the summers of 2001 and 2002 in two locations in Nova Scotia to identify the effect of cultivar, transplanting date, and drying (air-drying and freeze-drying) on basil (Ocimum basilicum `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf', and O. sanctum `Local') productivity and oil quality in Nova Scotia and to identify the potential of growing basil as a cash crop in this region. Results suggested that all of the tested cultivars of basil grown in Nova Scotia had acceptable yields and composition for the international commercial market. Greater yields (ranging from 3.6 to 19.8 t·ha-1) were achieved from `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf' by earlier transplanting. `Local' had a lower oil content compared to the other cultivars. Linalool was the main component of `Mesten' oil, linalool and methyl chavicol were the main components of `Italian Broadleaf' oil, while elemene and α-humulene were the main components of `Local' oil. Both air-drying and freeze-drying were found to alter the composition of the essential oil from O. sanctum and O. basilicum.
Oil sprays increase the phytotoxicity of captan to apple foliage. The purpose of this study was to determine if oils increase the penetration of captan through leaf cuticles. Enzymatically isolated apple leaf cuticles were used as a model system to study captan penetration. A bioassay was developed using the inhibition of growth of Penicillium cyclopium on potato-dextrose agar as a measure of captan penetration through the cuticle. Captan penetrated through both surfaces, but significantly more penetrated through the abaxial cuticles than the adaxial cuticles. Increasing the captan concentration increased the captan penetration through the abaxial cuticle in a linear relationship. Captan penetration through the cuticle was increased by 63% when cuticles were treated with captan plus 1% emulsified soybean oil. Abaxial cuticles treated with captan plus emulsified soybean oil or with captan plus SunSpray Ultra-Fine oil had >125% greater captan penetration than cuticles treated with only captan. Cuticles treated with captan plus dormant oil (petroleum oil) had 220% more captan penetration than the captan only treatment.