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Marvin P. Pritts and Mary Jo Kelly

through the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate

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Sujatha Sankula, Mark J. VanGessel, Walter E. Kee and J.L. Glancey

Funding for this project was obtained through a grant from Northeast Integrated Pest Management Program. Appreciation is extended to Quintin Johnson for help in establishing and harvesting the plots and Tracy Wootten for her input and help

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Daniel D. Stever* and Bob Rice

The use of beneficial nematodes as part of integrated pest management strategies is increasing especially for the control of soil inhabiting arthropods, however few studies have been published evaluating the efficacy of foliar applications for control of leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii). The objective of this study was to determine the more effective species of commonly used Steinernema (S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae) in the control of leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii). Greenhouse cut flower stocks of Dendranthema grandiflora grown in raised beds were infected with a well-established population of L. trifolii. Plants were treated with a coarse aqueous spray containing commercial preparations of each of the two nematode species at a rate of 1 million nematodes/5 square meters and a water control. Treatments were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Two days after treatment, larvae of L. trifolii were removed from the leaves and examined for parasitism.

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Russell Nagata*, Gregg Nuessly and Heather McAuslane

Host plant resistance is a key element in a viable integrated pest management plan. Resistance to plant feeding was observed on Valmaine cos lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. to the banded cucumber beetle (BCB), Diabotica balteata (LeConte). In no-choice feeding evaluations, adult BCB contained on three week old Valmaine plants gained less weight, died and fed less than individuals contained on susceptible Tall Guzmaine cos lettuce. Individual female BCB held on Valmaine plants also did not have egg development as in those individual held on Tall Guzmaine. Based on weight gain and feeding damage F1, F2, and F3 segregation data indicates that the resistance factor is recessive in inheritance and controlled by more that one gene.

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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.

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M.J. Else

In Integrated Pest Management (IPM), the costs of a control measure are compared to the potential for economic losses caused by a pest, with control measures being recommended only when expected costs of losses exceed costs of control. IPM models have been developed largely for insect pests, which multiply rapidly and for which timely population assessments are thus essential. Weed pests, on the other hand, multiply slowly. In the case of perennial crops, weeds may not reach populations sufficient to warrant control under conventional IPM criteria for many years. It is proposed that IPM concepts be adapted to weedy pests of perennial crops by creating models in which the long-term costs and consequences of both weeds and weed control measures are considered. These models would take into account expected increases in control costs and decreases in effectiveness of control measures over time and as a consequence consider some weeds to have effective thresholds at or near zero.

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R.G. Brumfield, F.E. Effiom and S. Reiners

Fresh tomatoes grown under three production cropping systems at the Rutgers University's Snyder Research and Extension Farm were compared for differences in yields, gross revenues, production costs and net returns. Maximum marketable yields were obtained using the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system, followed closely by the conventional system. Yields of the organic plots were only 54 percent of the conventional yield. However, the organic plots yielded only 17 percent culls whereas the IPM plots yielded 37 percent culls. Fifty-two percent of the organic tomatoes were U.S. Number Ones, while only one third of the produce from the other two systems were U.S. Number One grade. Organic plots had lower chemical costs, but substantially higher labor costs than the other two systems.

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Alvaro del Cid, Ramiro Ortiz and H.R. Valenzuela

PRECODEPA was formed with the purpose of coordinating research and extension to improve small-farm potato production. The program involves 9 countries in North, Central America and the Caribbean with the cooperation of the International Potato Center (CIP). Research and extension work was planed based on identified bottlenecks. Work was coordinated when similar bottlenecks were identified in different regions and/or countries. The project strategies emphasized the following: training of personnel to coordinate the work between extension and research; development of integrated pest management (IPM) practices; technology generation and validation trials on farmers' fields, and market development for commercialization purposes. The success of this unique program should serve as a model for similar agricultural projects in the future.

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Richard L. Fery and James M. Schalk

A replicated greenhouse study was conducted to confirm the availability of resistance to western Rower thrips in pepper germplasm. Host-plant resistance ratings confirmed earlier observations that there is a considerable amount of variability within pepper germplasm for reaction to F. occidentalis. Plants of `Keystone Resistant Giant', `Yolo Wonder L', `Mississippi Nemaheart', `Sweet Banana', and `California Wonder' were resistant to the insect and exhibited only mild symptoms of damage. Plants of `Carolina Cayenne', `Santaka', and `Bohemian Chili', however, exhibited the symptoms of severe thrips damage, i.e., poorly expanded, deformed, and distorted leaves; greatly shortened internodes; and severe chlorosis. The resistance to F. occidentalis in pepper appears to be due to tolerance mechanisms, not antixenosis (nonpreference) or antibiosis mechanisms. Thrips-resistant cultivars could be used as a cornerstone in an integrated pest management program for greenhouse pepper production.

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G.R. Brown, J. Hartman, R. Bessin, T. Jones and J. Strang

Apple growers would like to use pesticides efficiently and diminish concerns about food safety and pesticide usage. The 1992 Apple IPM Program objectives were: 1) to demonstrate the application of Integrated Pest Management practices in commercial orchards and, 2) to provide the training and support needed to help these growers become self sufficient in IPM practices. Grower training meetings and regular scouting of the orchards were the primary educational methods. End-of-the-season evaluations of past and disease incidence were made. Except for Frogeye Leaf Spot, there were no significant differences in insect pest, disease levels or in fruit quality attributes in IPM versus standard blocks. The IPM blocks had significantly more mite incidence. Growers did produce commercially acceptable crops using IPM based decisions while reducing the average past control cost by $56 par acre. Educational programs did help growers to be more proficient in making IPM based decisions.