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differences ( P < 0.0001) among the tested cultivars ( Table 2 ), indicating genetic variation for the traits under heat stress. These data confirmed a previous report of genetic variation for heat tolerance–related traits in eight crisphead lettuce cultivars

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significantly higher seed yield than Montcalm in the Juana Diaz (2004) stress trial ( Table 2 ), whereas TARS-HT2 had a significantly higher seed yield than Montcalm in the 2002 heat stress trial in Jackson, TN, and a significantly higher yield than ‘Redhawk’ in

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is from February to May. During the late summer season (May–September), tomato production faces both biotic stress (mainly Tuta absoulta , tomato yellow curl virus) and abiotic stress (mainly heat stress) that significantly decrease production and

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. Truco, M.J. Michelmore, R.W. 2013 Quantitative trait loci associated with tipburn, heat stress-induced physiological disorders, and maturity traits in crisphead lettuce Theor. Appl. Genet. 126 12 59 70 doi: 10.1007/s00122-013-2193-7 10.3390/horticulturae

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fogging systems have been used to prevent plant heat stress during the day. In fact, shading is one of the conventional and familiar techniques used by growers to decrease solar radiation and reduce air and leaf temperatures ( Sandri et al., 2003 ). Many

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production regions with high solar radiation ( Tarara et al., 2008 ; Wample, 1996 ). A porous kaolin-particle film on a leaf or fruit surface (PFT) has been shown to reduce heat stress without restricting gas exchange ( Glenn, 2009 ; Glenn et al., 2001

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and functionality of enzymes associated with photosynthetic activity are sensitive to heat stress ( Berry and Björkman, 1980 ; Murakami et al., 2000 ). Significant inhibition of photosynthesis occurs at temperatures only a few degrees above the

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potato plants ( Ahn and Zimmerman, 2006 ) overexpressing Hsp17.7 exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress. Transgenic E. coli containing and expressing an Hsp17.7 gene in a bacterial plasmid vector exhibit improved cell viability and soluble protein

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have increased incidence of dollar spot and leaf rust when managed with low N levels. Tall fescue N fertilization ranges from 19 to 50 kg·ha −1 per month ( Beard, 1973 ). Brown patch is a problem in tall fescue during summer heat stress, and increased

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Drought and heat stress are two major environmental constraints limiting the growth of cool-season plant species and simultaneous drought and heat can be more detrimental than either stress alone ( Albert et al., 2011 ; Jiang and Huang, 2001a

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