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production regions with high solar radiation ( Tarara et al., 2008 ; Wample, 1996 ). A porous kaolin-particle film on a leaf or fruit surface (PFT) has been shown to reduce heat stress without restricting gas exchange ( Glenn, 2009 ; Glenn et al., 2001

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potato plants ( Ahn and Zimmerman, 2006 ) overexpressing Hsp17.7 exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress. Transgenic E. coli containing and expressing an Hsp17.7 gene in a bacterial plasmid vector exhibit improved cell viability and soluble protein

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have increased incidence of dollar spot and leaf rust when managed with low N levels. Tall fescue N fertilization ranges from 19 to 50 kg·ha −1 per month ( Beard, 1973 ). Brown patch is a problem in tall fescue during summer heat stress, and increased

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and functionality of enzymes associated with photosynthetic activity are sensitive to heat stress ( Berry and Björkman, 1980 ; Murakami et al., 2000 ). Significant inhibition of photosynthesis occurs at temperatures only a few degrees above the

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.K. Yoza, K. Nagata, T. Hosoda, H. 1999 The study of heat stress in tomato fruits by NMR microimaging Magn. Reson. Imaging 17 767 772 doi: 10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00219-7 10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00219-7 Kagan-Zur, V. Tieman, D.M. Marlow, S.J. Handa, A.K. 1995

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several hours ( Ruter and Ingram, 1990 ). One method of dealing with heat stress in container production is to use containers with alternative colors or composition instead of black plastic. Black plastic pots act as heat sinks because of their ability to

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, KO, and SL) grown in 7.8-L pots were subjected to control or high temperature stress conditions in the greenhouse. Control plants were kept under ambient conditions and plants to be heat stressed were moved to the adjacent greenhouse where stress

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important role in ameliorating heat stress and water stress by reducing solar radiation, and as a result reducing leaf temperature and leaf transpiration through a decrease in evaporative demand between leaves and the surrounding air. Postharvest fruit

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Drought and heat stress are two major environmental constraints limiting the growth of cool-season plant species and simultaneous drought and heat can be more detrimental than either stress alone ( Albert et al., 2011 ; Jiang and Huang, 2001a

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Heat stress affects the phenotype of plants, causing leaf etiolation and wilting, and alters the anatomy, physiology, and photosynthetic capability of plants ( Szymańska et al., 2017 ). High-temperature conditions can potentially cause the

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