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Maurizio Giolo, Stefano Macolino, Erica Barolo and Filippo Rimi

withstand lethal, cold temperatures is a complex phenomenon and includes mechanisms of freezing tolerance and avoidance, which are commonly enhanced by a gradual decrease of temperatures (acclimation) ( Hannah et al., 2006 ; Zhen and Ungerer, 2008

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Jennifer A. Kimball, Thomas G. Isleib, William C. Reynolds, Maria C. Zuleta and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

the United States. Studies have reported significant variability in winter survival and freezing tolerance among present-day cultivars ( Kimball et al., 2016a , 2016b; Milla-Lewis et al., 2013 ; Moseley et al., 2010 ; Reynolds et al., 2009 ). Cold

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Kaitlyn M. Orde, Connor Eaton and Rebecca G. Sideman

( Bjelić and Moravčević, 2006 ), spinach has a high tolerance to chilling damage ( Guy and Haskell, 1987 ; Nobel, 1974 ; Tamura, 2002 ) and has the ability to gain freezing tolerance through acclimation to low temperatures ( Fennell and Li, 1985

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Yi Zhang, Tracey Mechlin and Imed Dami

ultimately the increase of freezing tolerance in plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ( Mantyla et al., 1995 ), Betula pendula Roth. ( Li et al., 2003 ), Hordeum vulgare L. ( Bravo et al., 1998 ), Secale cereale L. ( Churchill et al

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Michael Wisniewski, D. Michael Glenn, Lawrence Gusta and Michael P. Fuller

“2006–2007 HortTalks Presentations.” Great effort and expense are used during a frost episode to protect plant tissues that have no freezing tolerance and are killed if frozen. These efforts include plant covers, windmills to mix layers of air, smudge

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Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen and Jinmin Fu

., 2016a ; Shi et al., 2014 ). During evolutionary process, plants have acquired adaptive responses to survive extreme temperatures. Many plants from temperate regions increase in freezing tolerance upon exposure to low, nonfreezing temperatures, which is

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Tessa Pocock

responses and flowering ( Thomas, 2006 ), circadian clock ( Devlin and Kay, 2000 ), plant immunity (herbivores/pathogens) ( Ballaré, 2014 ), and freezing tolerance ( Franklin and Whitelam, 2007 ) ( Table 1 ).The second PR class is the blue light (380–470 nm

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Maria M. Jenderek, Phil Forsline, Joseph Postman, Ed Stover and David Ellis

, 1988b ). The geographic location in which the material was grown can account for differing levels of adaptive environmental freezing tolerance that may be related to cryotolerance ( Sakai, 1965 ; Towill and Widrlechner, 2004 ). In Australian wild

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Marco Volterrani, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani and Filippo Lulli

found for freezing tolerance of TE-treated bermudagrass ( Fagerness et al., 2002 ; Richardson, 2002 ). Based on the description of several secondary effects, it has become evident that different metabolic pathways are affected in the plant following TE

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Jeff A. Anderson

, and freezing tolerance of tomato seedlings grown from uniconazole-treated seed HortScience 25 312 313 Franko, D.A. Wilson, K.G. Li, Q.Q. Equiza, M.A. 2011 A topical spray to enhance plant resistance to cold injury and mortality HortTechnology 21 109