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Robert A. Saftner, Judith A. Abbott, William S. Conway, Cynthia L. Barden and Bryan T. Vinyard

Fruit quality, sensory characteristics, and volatiles produced by 'Gala' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were characterized following regular atmosphere (RA) storage without and with a prestorage heat treatment (38 °C for 4 days) or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 0 and 2 °C for 0 to 6 months plus 7-day shelf life at 20 °C. Static CA conditions were 0.7 kPa O2 plus 1.0 kPa CO2, 1.0 kPa O2 plus 1.0 kPa CO2, and 1.5 kPa O2 plus 2.5 kPa CO2. Most of the more abundant volatiles were esters; the rest were alcohols, an aldehyde, a ketone, and an aryl ether. Respiration and ethylene production rates, internal atmospheres of CO2 and ethylene, and volatile levels were reduced following CA storage compared with RA storage without and with a prestorage heat treatment. Magness-Taylor and compression firmness, titratable acidity, and sensory scores for firmness, sourness, apple-fruity flavor, and overall acceptability were higher for CA-than for RA-stored fruit. Soluble solids content and sensory scores for sweetness were similar among all treatments. Quality and sensory characteristics were generally similar in heated and nonheated RA-stored fruit, and between 0 and 2 °C in CA- and RA-stored fruit. While one CA regime had a higher CO2 concentration than the others tested, CA effects on quality and sensory characteristics were generally more pronounced at the lower O2 levels. Quality characteristics declined between 2 and 4 months storage. The results indicate that short-term CA storage can maintain instrumental and sensory quality of 'Gala' apples.

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Murray Clayton, William V. Biasi, I. Tayfun Agar, Stephen M. Southwick and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

`Bing' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees were treated with hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2) or calcium ammonium nitrate (CaNH4NO3) during dormancy, or gibberellic acid (GA3) 26 days before harvest during three consecutive years. Fruit were evaluated at harvest for sensory taste quality using twenty trained panelists sampling for firmness, sweetness, tartness, and cherry flavor. Nondestructive instrumental firmness preceded destructive sensory firmness on the same untreated and GA3-treated cherries in one year when used as a supplementary evaluation. Sensory firmness was consistently higher in GA3 fruit and to a lesser extent in CH2N2 fruit than in CaNH4NO3 and untreated fruit. Instrumental firmness of GA3 fruit did not increase significantly compared with untreated fruit yet instrumental firmness of each treatment correlated relatively well with perceived sensory firmness. Sensory sweetness and cherry flavor scored very similarly, yet both attributes simultaneously varied between treatments across the years. Perceived sensory tartness of treated fruit was variable among years; yet, on average, was rated among treated and untreated fruit as similar. Under the assumption that elevated sensory firmness, sweetness, and cherry flavor intensity reflects improved sweet cherry quality, GA3 fruit were rated of higher quality than untreated fruit given their increased firmness and similar or occasionally elevated sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. CH2N2 fruit maintained quality similar to that of untreated fruit, despite often having marginally higher firmness, due to similar or reduced ratings for sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. Notwithstanding similar firmness between CaNH4NO3 and untreated cherries, sensory quality of CaNH4NO3-treated cherries was reduced due to their often-diminished levels of perceived sweetness and cherry flavor.

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Esnath T. Hamadziripi, Karen I. Theron, Magdalena Muller and Willem J. Steyn

sweet sensory descriptors and green apples with grassy, acidic, or sour sensory descriptors ( Daillant-Spinnler et al., 1996 ). Upon tasting, internal quality characteristics such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, and texture attributes are also

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Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Lisa J. Brutcher and Carolyn F. Ross

’ fruit is very crisp, firm, and juicy ( Table 2 ) in texture and has a balanced flavor with a higher acid to sugar ratio than ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ ( Table 1 ), which have low acidity and are typically characterized as bland. Aroma is mild and apple-like and

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Carolina Contreras, Mauricio González-Agüero and Bruno G. Defilippi

higher acidity content and grassy flavor notes ( Rodríguez-Burruezo et al., 2004a , 2011 ). In the 1990s, pepino was proposed as a physiological model of the texture or firmness changes that occur during maturation and ripening ( Heyes et al., 1994

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi and Cary A. Mitchell

). Different qualities and quantities of light can influence not only growth and development but also secondary metabolic processes that determine nutritive value and flavor attributes. This research spans many high-value crops including arugula ( Eruca sativa

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Randy G. Gardner and Dilip R. Panthee

satisfaction with their vine-ripened flavor, especially their high sugar content, and desirable fruit size and crisp texture. Breeding of improved grape tomato types in the North Carolina fresh-market tomato breeding program has resulted in the release of three

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W.M. Randle and M.L. Bussard

Sixteen short-day onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars with high (4.0 meq·liter-1) and low S (0.1 meq·liter-1) fertility were evaluated for several characteristics associated with bulb flavor. Sulfur levels interacted with cultivars in influencing bulb pungency and concentrations of S and individual sugars, except for fructose. Enzymatically formed pyruvic acid correlated poorly with bulb S concentration, which suggests differential partitioning of S into flavor and nonflavor compounds among cultivars. Bulb percent dry weight correlated negatively with bulb S concentration. Since poor correlations were found between enzymatically formed pyruvic acid and water-soluble carbohydrates, we postulate that pungency and sweetness function independently in bulbs of fresh-market short-day onion cultivars.

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John C. Beaulieu

A likely reason why consumers are not repeat buyers of many fresh-cut fruit is inconsistent or unsatisfactory flavor and/or textural quality. Research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for generation, and/or loss of flavor compounds in fresh-cut fruit is limited. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized to study flavor volatile profiles in anthesis-tagged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. cv. Sol Real) during growth, development, and for fresh-cuts prepared from fruit with five distinctly different harvest maturities. One-quarter-slip fruit had a clearly green, well-attached peduncle; 1/2-slip fruit had a distinct abscission detectable at the peduncle, 3/4-slip fruit were approaching commercial harvest, full-slip (FS) fruit are or will cleanly separate from the vine with light pressure; and over-ripeness (OR) was precisely categorized as 2 days past FS. Recovery of total volatiles displayed a linear response and most volatile classes (except aldehydes) generally followed a trend upon processing where FS > 3/4-slip > 1/2-slip > 1/4-slip. On day 0, only 70.0%, 37.7%, and 20.5% total volatiles were recovered in 3/4-slip, 1/2-slip, and 1/4-slip fruit, compared to FS fruit. During fresh-cut storage, percent total esters followed an increasing linear trend that was maturity-dependent. Percent total aromatics and percent aldehydes followed a linear trend that was maturity-dependent whereby 1/4-slip > 1/2-slip > 3/4-slip > FS. During storage, the relative percentage of acetates decreased, and displayed a maturity-dependent curvilinear trend. The magnitude of the slope decreased with maturity, indicating that the effect of storage time decreased as maturity increased. In FS, 3/4-slip, 1/2-slip, and 1/4-slip cubes, acetates comprised 66.9% of all compounds recovered on day 0 yet, only 26.1% to 44.2%, and 21.3% to 32.6% remained on days 9 and 14, respectively. For all maturities, a curvilinear increase in relative percentage of nonacetate esters was observed during storage. There was a uniform change in the ester balance (nonacetate ester:acetate ratio) during fresh-cut storage, which was independent of initial processing maturity. The overall ester ratio changed roughly 2-fold after just 2 days in optimum storage, and after 5 days it increased more than 3-fold. The shift in endogenous ester compounds could be partially responsible for the apparent loss of characteristic flavor in fresh-cut cantaloupe through long-term storage.

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Andrew G. Reynolds, Douglas A. Wardle and Marjorie Dever

Vitis vinifera L. cultivars Müller-Thurgau, Muscat Ottonel, Gewürztraminer, and Kerner were studied for 1 year to document changes in fruit terpene levels from berry stage to free-run and press-juice stages. Substantial amounts of free volatile terpenes (FVTs) and potentially volatile terpenes (PVTs) were lost between berry and juice stages. PVTs were higher in press juices of `Gewürztraminer' and `Muscat Ottonel' than in free-run juices. In another experiment, juices from `Miiller-Thurgau', `Muscat Ottonel', `Kerner', `Optima', `Pearl of Csaba', and `Siegerrebe', harvested 10 to 20 days after a designated initial harvest date, contained higher FVTs and PVTs than initially. A third experiment with `Kerner', `Müller-Thurgau', `Optima', and `Siegerrebe' found highest FVTs and PVTs in juices from grapes subjected to skin contact compared with grapes crushed and immediately pressed. Sensory evaluation showed aroma differences between wines from free-run and press juices of `Miiller-Thurgau' and `Muscat Ottonel', aroma and flavor differences due to harvest date for all cultivars except `Pearl of Csaba', and aroma and flavor differences due to skin contact for `Siegerrebe'.