growth or evapotranspiration) using the formula, K c = ET A /ET 0 ( Allen et al., 1998 ), where ET A is actual crop evapotranspiration (measured as DWU) and ET 0 is reference evapotranspiration obtained from the on-site weather station ( www
Nicholas A. Pershey, Bert M. Cregg, Jeffrey A. Andresen and R. Thomas Fernandez
Eric T. Stafne, John R. Clark and Curt R. Rom
Net CO2 assimilation (A), evapotranspiration (ET), and stomatal conductance (g s) were determined in two experiments for 14 and 18 raspberry (Rubus sp.) genotypes, respectively, grown in 4-L containers and exposed to 35 °C daytime temperatures 2 weeks and 4 weeks after placement in growth chambers. Measurements were taken on two successive leaves on the same primocane between the third and seventh node (≈75% to 85% of full leaf expansion). In Expt. 1, selections from Louisiana exhibited higher A (3.10-5.73 μmol·m-2·s-1) than those from Oregon (0.50-2.65 μmol·m-2·s-1). In Expt. 2, the genotype × time interactions were nonsignificant, and time of measurement did not affect A or ET (P ≤ 0.05). Assimilation ranged from 2.08 to 6.84 μmol·m-2·s-1 and varied greatly among genotypes, indicating that diverse A levels exist at high temperatures in raspberry germplasm. NC 296, a selection of R. coreanus Miq. from China, and `Dormanred', a southern-adapted raspberry cultivar with R. parvifolius Hemsl. as a parent, had the highest A rates. Evapotranspiration and g s did not differ among genotypes. Average g s for all genotypes declined from 234 mmol·m-2·s-1 in week 2 to 157 mmol·m-2·s-1 in week 4. Our findings, coupled with plant performance under hot conditions, can be used to identify potential parental raspberry germplasm for breeding southern-adapted cultivars.
Theodore J.K. Radovich, Matthew D. Kleinhenz and John G. Streeter
To better understand the influence of environmental factors on components of crop productivity and nutritional and sensory quality parameters, the fresh-market cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group) `Bravo' was irrigated at different periods relative to head development in 2002 and 2003 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster. Irrigation was provided to plots either: 1) from planting to maturity, 2) during frame development only, or 3) during head development only. Control plants received no irrigation after plant establishment. Irrigation timing relative to crop stage significantly affected all head characteristics with the greatest differences between cabbage receiving irrigation during head development and cabbage not irrigated during head development. On average, heads from cabbage irrigated during head development were heavier, larger, less pointed, and had less volume occupied by the core than heads from cabbage not irrigated during head development. A positive, linear relationship (r 2 = 0.89) was found between head volume and head weight. Across years, combined head fructose and glucose concentrations were significantly greater and sucrose concentrations significantly lower in cabbage receiving irrigation during head development than in cabbage not irrigated during head development. Total and individual glucosinolate levels were greater in cabbage not irrigated during head development relative to cabbage receiving irrigation during head development. Head weight, fructose and glucose were positively related to the proportion of estimated crop evapotranspiration replaced by irrigation during head development, while the opposite response was observed in head sucrose and total and indole glucosinolate concentrations.
C.M. Baldwin, H. Liu, L.B. McCarty, W.L. Bauerle and J.E. Toler
A 2-year greenhouse study was conducted at Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., in 2003 and 2004 to determine drought responses of six bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) cultivars at four irrigation intervals. Cultivars selected from the 2002 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Bermudagrass Trial were `SWI-1012', `Arizona Common', `Tift No.3', `Tifsport', `Aussie Green', and `Celebration'. Treatments included 5-, 10-, and 15-day irrigation intervals plus a control (irrigated daily). Volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were recorded every 3 days. Turfgrass quality (TQ) was observed weekly and root weight was measured at the end of a 6-week study. `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' produced the highest TQ rating (>7) at week 4 when watered daily. After 4 weeks of the 5-day irrigation interval, all cultivars showed unacceptable quality ratings (<7). However, `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' were able to maintain an acceptable TQ rating (7), compared to `Arizona Common' (5.1) and `Tift No.3' (5.8) at week 2 (5-day treatment). `Celebration' produced 114% and 97% greater root weight than `Tifsport' and `Aussie Green', respectively, when pooled across all irrigation treatments. At the 15-day irrigation interval treatment, six bermudagrass cultivars pooled together produced 78%, 22%, and 11% greater root weight vs. control, 5-day, and 10-day treatments, respectively. When pooled for all treatments, `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' VSWC was 5% and 7% lower than `Tift No.3', and ET rates were 26% and 30% greater than `Arizona Common'. Based on these results, irrigating bermudagrass in 5-day intervals should be carefully monitored.
J.P. Syvertsen and M.L. Smith
Four-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on either the relatively fast-growing rootstock `Volkamer' lemon (VL) (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or on the slower-growing rootstock sour orange (SO) (C. aurantium L.) were transplanted into 7.9-m3 drainage lysimeter tanks filled with native Candler sand, irrigated similarly, and fertilized at three N rates during 2.5 years. After 6 months, effects of N application rate and rootstock on tree growth, evapotranspiration, fruit yield, N uptake, and leaching were measured during the following 2 years. When trees were 5 years old, low, medium, and high N application rates averaged about 79,180, or 543 g N/tree per year and about 126,455, or 868 g N/tree during the following year. Recommended rates average about 558 g N/tree per year. A lysimeter tank with no tree and additional trees growing outside lysimeters received the medium N treatment. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water increased with N rate and exceeded 10 mg·liter-1 for trees receiving the high rates and also for the no tree tank. Leachate N concentration and total N recovered was greater from trees on SO than from those on VL. Average N uptake efficiency of medium N rate trees on VL was 6870 of the applied N and 61 % for trees on SO. Nitrogen uptake efficiency decreased with increased N application rates. Trees outside lysimeters had lower leaf N and fruit yield than lysimeter trees. Overall, canopy volume and leaf N concentration increased with N rate, but there was no effect of N rate on fibrous root dry weight. Fruit yield of trees on SO was not affected by N rate but higher N resulted in greater yield for trees on VL. Rootstock had no effect on leaf N concentration, but trees on VI. developed larger canopies, had greater fibrous root dry weight, used more water, and yielded more fruit than trees on SO. Based on growth, fruit yield and N leaching losses, currently recommended N rates were appropriate for trees on the more vigorous VL rootstock but were 22% to 69 % too high for trees on SO.
Krista Shellie and D. Michael Glenn
deficit-irrigated with 35% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET c ) until veraison (berry softening and color change). After veraison, the percentage of ET c was increased from 35 to 70 (35% to 70% ET c ). The remaining plots received 100% ET c from
David L. Ehret, Brenda Frey, Tom Forge, Tom Helmer and David R. Bryla
the plots. Daily potential evapotranspiration (ET o ) was measured with an atmometer (ETgage Model E; ETgage Company, Loveland, CO) fitted with a Style #30 diffusion cover. The atmometer was placed within the plots at a height equivalent to the top of
Eric Simonne, Harry A. Mills and Doyle A. Smittle
Measurements of daily, 3-day, and 6-day cumulative pan evaporation using a #2 wash tub or a modified steel drum and a ruler provided an accurate, easy, and inexpensive way to schedule irrigation. Pan factors for these containers, which were covered with a 5-cm-mesh wire under humid climatic conditions, were 1.0 and 1.1, respectively.
C.D. Stanley and B.K. Harbaugh
Methodology was developed to estimate water requirements for production of 20 different potted ornamental plant species with practical application for water conservation in commercial operations. Water requirement prediction equations were generated using pan evaporation to estimate evaporative demand along with plant canopy height and width and flower height as input variables. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the prediction equations among plant species ranged from 0.51 to 0.91, with the lower values mostly associated with plant species with an open or less-uniform growth habit. Variation in water use among different cultivars of marigold also was associated with differences in cultivar growth habit. Estimation of the daily water requirements of potted Reiger begonia and Ficus benjamina using their developed prediction equations was compared to actual water use under common growing conditions to demonstrate the implementation of the method for plant species differing in growth habit.
J.P. Syvertsen, M.L. Smith, J. Lloyd and G.D. Farquhar
Five- to six-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on `Volkamer' lemon [VL = C. volkameriana (Ten. & Pasq.)] or sour orange (SO = C. aurantium L.) rootstock, were grown individually in 7.9-m3 lysimeters for 2.5 years using low to high rates of fertilizer N. Net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) of leaves and leaf dry mass per area (DM/a) increased with leaf N concentration, whereas leaf tissue C isotope discrimination (Δ) decreased. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to ACO2 and DM/a. Transient effects of rootstock on leaf N were reflected by similar effects on Δ. There was no effect of leaf N on water-use efficiency (WUE) of leaves (WUEL = ACO2/transpiration); WUEL was not correlated with Δ. Although photosynthetic N use efficiency (ACO2/N) consistently decreased with increased leaf N, Δ was not consistently related to ACO2/N. Annual canopy growth, tree evapotranspiration (ET), and fruit yield increased with whole tree N uptake. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to all of these tree measurements at the end of the second year. By that time, whole-tree WUE (WUET, annual canopy growth per ET) also was negatively related to Δ. Larger trees on VL had higher ET than trees on SO, but there were no rootstock effects on WUET or on Δ. Leaf tissue Δ was consistently higher than Δ values of trunk and woody root tissues. Citrus leaf tissue Δ can be a useful indicator of leaf N, characteristics of leaf gas exchange, tree growth, yield, and WUET in response to N availability.