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phosphorylation pathway, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase (spot 386) was identified. This pathway is highly efficient in releasing energy but produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) during electron transport in the mitochondria ( Zsigmond et al., 2008 ). The

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′)/( F m − F o ); photochemical quenching (qP) = ( F m ′ − F s )/( F m ′ − F o ); relative deviation energy from a complete balance between PSI and PSII (1 − qP) = 1 − ( F m ′ − F s )/( F m ′ − F o ′); relative electron transport rate (ETR) = Φ PSII

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cold stress period. Higher concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase were also observed in evergreens in winter ( Anderson et al., 1992 ). The importance of a balanced adjustment of electron transport and antioxidative systems for avoidance

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stress; this finding is analogous to those found previously in ginkgo cells ( Chen et al., 2014 ). In conclusion, severe salt stress decreases pigment content and activity of photosynthetic electron transport (Φ PSII , q P ), inhibits conversion ( F v / F

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electron transport pathway in leaf chloroplasts ( Yabuta et al., 2007 ). It is known that increased proportions of blue light generated by LEDs increase photosynthesis ( Hogewoning et al., 2010 ; Matsuda et al., 2004 , 2007 ). Therefore, the accumulations

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from 12 to 21 h⋅d −1 with DLI at 12 and 17 mol⋅m −2 ⋅d −1 , respectively, which may be caused by the increased daily photochemical integral (the total electron transport through photosystem II integrated over a 24-h period). However, opposite results

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reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or free radicals is an unavoidable consequence of the electron transport involved in respiratory and photosynthetic pathways that normally occurs in plant tissue ( Arora et al., 2002 ; Toivonen, 2004 ). However, stress

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photosynthetic electron transport and it functions as a cofactor for superoxide dismutases; Fe deficiency results in decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and other components of the thylakoid membrane ( Morales et al., 1991 , 1994 ). Thus, Fe

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concentration control photosynthetic activity in the rind such as activation of the photosynthetic electron transport system or the concentration or activation of RuBisCO protein. Mandarin fruit showed much higher PEPC activity than leaves on both a protein and

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ethanol production. In the aged ground seeds, an interplay between degradation of electron transport processes and degradation of ADH enzyme from aging and hydration damage might explain the decreased ethanol production. Reduced tetrazolium staining in the

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