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William C. Kreuser and Frank S. Rossi

first application. All measured observations occurred 48 h after treatment applications except for the scanning electron micrographs that occurred 48 h after the first and second application. Membrane integrity was determined by electrolyte leakage (EL

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Charles Fontanier, Justin Quetone Moss, Lakshmy Gopinath, Carla Goad, Kemin Su and Yanqi Wu

( Oklahoma Mesonet, 2015 ): 14 d under 17/3 °C, 7 d under 22/8 °C, 19 d under 27/14 °C (10-h photoperiod for each temperature regime). Measurements. Discrete measurements of visual injury, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf electrolyte leakage (EL), and lipid

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El-Sayed Mohamed El-Mahrouk, Eman Abdel-Hakim Eisa, Mahmoud Abdelnaby Hegazi, Mohamed El-Sayed Abdel-Gayed, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk and Yougasphree Naidoo

by adding 100 μL of crude enzyme extract. Changes in absorbance at 470 nm were recorded at 30-s intervals for 3 min. Enzyme activity was expressed as an increase in the absorbance min −1 ·g −1 fresh weight. Electrolyte leakage. Measurements were

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Longxing Hu, Tao Hu, Xunzhong Zhang, Huancheng Pang and Jinmin Fu

GB did not affect on EL and MDA content under non-salinity conditions. Fig. 4. Effects of glycine betaine (GB) on leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) ( A ) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) ( B ) of perennial ryegrass under salt stress or non-stress conditions

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Vijaya Shukla, Yingmei Ma and Emily Merewitz

infrared thermometer was used to measure canopy temperature (Model 2956; Spectrum Technologies). Leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) was measured by taking ≈200 mg of leaf samples from each plant. The tissue was briefly rinsed in deionized water and then put into

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla and Emily B. Merewitz

the leaf electrolyte leakage (EL). Approximately 10 leaves were taken from each plant and washed with deionized water for three times and immersed in 25 to 30 mL of deionized water and placed in a shaker for 24 h. The conductivity of the water

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Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin

expressed as changes in conductivity relative to an initial measurement. The electrolyte leakage levels recorded just before chilling were used as initial measurements. All treatments were replicated three times, and conductivity values were expressed on a

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Ustun Sahin, Melek Ekinci, Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Recep Kotan and Selda Ors

(EC2) was measured. Electrolyte leakage was calculated as a percentage of EC1/EC2. Leaf relative water content. LRWC was measured according to Gonzalez and Gonzalez-Vilar (2001) . The young fully expanded leaves were first removed from stem and

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Diheng Zhong, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang and Bingru Huang

completely desiccated and RWC reached the same level in both genotypes (29% in ‘Tifway’ and 28% in ‘C299’). Fig. 1. Changes in leaf relative water content ( A ) and electrolyte leakage ( B ) during drought stress in drought-resistant hybrid bermudagrass

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Huseyin Karlidag, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Mucahit Pehluvan and Figen Donmez

leakage (membrane permeability) For measurement of electrolyte leakage, 10 leaf discs (10 mm in diameter) from the young fully expanded leaves from two plants per replicate were placed in 50-mL glass vials and rinsed with distilled water to remove the