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Roberto G. Lopez and Diane M. Camberato

costs of petroleum resins used in manufacturing plastic containers and environmental impacts of plastic disposal, coupled with advanced technologies in biodegradable and compostable products and changing public perception, indicate an opportunity for

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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin, and Mary A. O'Connell

or other mild cultivars. If the extraction of the red pigments could be achieved separate from the capsaicinoids, then a wider range of red-fruited cultivars could be used, including ones with important values also as a fresh green crop. Disposal of

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

soil and agricultural chemicals ( Steinmetz et al., 2016 ); therefore, most plastic mulch is disposed of in landfills. Many small-scale and organic farmers opt not to use plastic mulch because of disposal problems and concerns about soil contamination

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James A. Schrader, Christopher J. Currey, Nicholas J. Flax, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

). This practice results in the consumption and landfill disposal of more than 1 million tons of petroleum-based plastic in the form of horticulture containers each year in the United States ( Schrader, 2013 , 2016a ). In a recent life cycle assessment

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Shuresh Ghimire, Annette L. Wszelaki, Jenny C. Moore, Debra Ann Inglis, and Carol Miles

of removing adhering soil and plant debris ( Levitan and Barros, 2003 ). PE mulch removal and disposal in a landfill is costly, up to $584/ha ( Galinato and Walters, 2012 ; Galinato et al., 2012 ). The lack of affordable recycling and disposal

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averaged 3–20 stems/plant per month. New Biodegradable Mulch Films Maintain High Fresh-market Tomato Yields Removal and disposal of used plastic mulches is a major challenge for the vegetable industry. The need to develop a mulch film that biodegrades over

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George F. Czapar, Marc P. Curry, and Raymond A. Cloyd

pesticides products with an average of 1.4 pesticides per household. Proper application, handling, and disposal practices are necessary to minimize the impact of pesticides on water quality. Recently, Gilliom et al. (2006) reported the results of a national

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Yuncong Li, Edward Hanlon, George O'Connor, Jianjun Chen, and Maria Silveira

concerns, and regulations. Landfill or other disposal alternatives for wastes are often more convenient and cheaper. Availability in the local area and quality of final waste products (by-products) are important issues for users. State regulations often do

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C. Michael Bourget

accidentally broken. Most municipalities also require special disposal of these lamps to properly handle the mercury, usually for an extra fee. LEDs contain no hazardous materials, so this is not an issue. The small size of LEDs allows unprecedented

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Michele R. Warmund, Andrew K. Biggs, and Larry D. Godsey

another bin for disposal was recorded. For the Paddock Vac, the time to pick up chestnuts and burs, sort them, move the equipment, and dump the burs and other debris was recorded. Nut numbers and their fresh weights were also recorded to calculate the time