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Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and David C. Smith

infects many species in the genus Corylus . On the commercially important European hazelnut, it causes severe stem cankers leading to rapid yield losses and eventual tree death in 5 to 12 years if proper control measures are not practiced ( Pinkerton et

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Charles A. Powell, Mark A. Ritenour and Robert C. Bullock

, the causal agent of citrus canker ( Hill, 1918 ). Two of the most commonly used insecticides on young trees are Temik (aldicarb) and Admire (imidacloprid). Both Temik ( Bullock, 1989 ; French and Timmer, 1979 ) and Admire ( Powell et al., 2006 , 2007

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and David C. Smith

’ controls in the same test developed cankers. The lack of cankers confirmed the results of the RAPD markers and indicates complete resistance to the isolate of EFB in Oregon. The response of ‘Red Dragon’ to inoculation with other isolates of EFB from the

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James D. Spiers, Claudine A. Jenda and Bridget S. Farrell

from Japan from 1908 to 1911 ( Tanaka, 1932 ). Many obstacles were overcome, such as the eradication of citrus canker and the standardization of varieties. Though periodic severe freezes ultimately prevented a citrus industry consisting of thousands of

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severely reduced by diseases like citrus bacterial canker and citrus greening. Many growers are seeking diversification of their agricultural enterprises; however, little is known about alternative specialty crops such as peaches regarding market potential

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, David C. Smith and Rebecca L. McCluskey

inoculated in the glasshouse with fungal spores of A. anomala as described by Sathuvalli et al. (2010) , and all were free of disease in Dec. 2015, while all 13 trees of the susceptible control ‘Ennis’ developed cankers. No cankers were observed on the 11

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M.L. Stratton

diagrams, old favorites, are included: the water cycle and the pH vs. nutrient availability diagrams, each being nicely depicted. The section on injuries displays bleeding bark and a canker from phosphorus injections, mechanical injuries to fruit, and

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Josh A. Honig, Megan F. Muehlbauer, John M. Capik, Christine Kubik, Jennifer N. Vaiciunas, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and Thomas J. Molnar

cankers, extensive pruning, and liberal fungicide applications; however, they are not always completely effective, which is a challenge when dealing with a perennial stem canker disease that has a 16-month latent period. This point, combined with the

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Michele R. Warmund and Jeanne D. Mihail

evident and problematic as elderberry plantings mature ( Warmund et al., 2019 ). Fungal pathogens causing cankers, leaf spots, blights, and root rots on elderberry have been reported by others ( Charlebois et al., 2010 ; Pirone et al., 1978 ). Cytospora

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, David C. Smith and Rebecca L. McCluskey

’, indicating that it has a very high level of resistance. Additional RAPD markers linked to resistance are also present. ‘Wepster’ is heterozygous and transmits these markers to half of its seedlings. No trees of ‘Wepster’ in our trials developed cankers, but