Several annual and perennial weed species were effectively controlled with 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil (terbacil) in orchards. One-year-old seedling rootstocks of peach, Prunus persica, (L.) Patsch, were most tolerant to terbacil; pear, Pyrus communis, L., and apple, Malus sylvestris, L., seedlings were intermediate; the East Malling (EM) VII clone, Mazzard, Prunus avium, L., and Mahaleb cherry, Prunus mahaleb, L., seedlings were most susceptible. Both surface and soil incorporated applications were toxic, indicating that terbacil was readily leached into the root zone. Applications were made in 2 and 6-year-old experimental blocks and in commercial orchards (age 2–15 years) from 1965 to 1968. No major damage was observed on apple, peach, tart cherry or sweet cherry trees that were established 3 years or longer. Toxicity symptoms manifested as veinal chlorosis were occasionally observed on sandy loam soils at rates 2–3 fold greater than required for satisfactory weed control.
This report demonstrates the presence of S-ribonucleases (S-RNases), which are associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) in Prunus L., in styles of self-incompatible and self-compatible (SC) selections of tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Based on self-pollen tube growth in the styles of 13 sour cherry selections, seven selections were SC, while six selections were SI. In the SI selections, the swelling of pollen tube tips, which is typical of SI pollen tube growth in gametophytic SI, was observed. Stylar extracts of these selections were evaluated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycoproteins which had molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of S-RNases in other Prunus sp. were detected in all selections tested. These proteins had immunological characteristics and N-terminal amino acid sequences consistent with the S-RNases in other Prunus sp. Two cDNAs encoding glycoproteins from `Erdi Botermo' were cloned. One of them had the same nucleotide sequence as that of S4 -RNase of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), while the amino acid sequence from the other cDNA encoded a novel S-RNase (named Sa -RNase in this study). This novel RNase contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five regions conserved among other Prunus S-RNases. Genomic DNA blot analysis using cDNAs encoding S-RNases of sweet cherry as probes indicated that three or four S-RNase alleles are present in the genome of each selection regardless of SI. All of the selections tested seemed to have at least one S-allele that is also found in sweet cherry. Genetic control of SI/SC in tetraploid sour cherry is discussed based on the results obtained from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
More than 400 genotypes of Prunus were evaluated for “in field” rooting and survival from fall-planted hardwood cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA. Cultivars of European and Japanese plums originating from species and interspecific hybrids of the section (sect.) Prunus had the highest survival. Cuttings from cultivars of sand cherry (sect. Microcerasus) and peach (sect. Euamygdalus) averaged 28% to 54% lower survival than European and Japanese plums. Few cultivars of almonds (sect. Euamygdalus), apricots (sect. Armeniaca), and American plums (sect. Prunocerasus) rooted from hardwood cuttings. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Prunus accessions were screened in a greenhouse for suitability as hosts for Criconemella xenoplax (Raski) Luc and Raski. All 410 accessions examined were suitable hosts for the nematode. Included in this study were 266 Prunus persica L. Batsch cultivars and cultivars representing 25 other Prunus species: P. americana Marsh., P. andersonii A. Gray, P. angustifolia Marsh., P. argentea (Lam.) Rehd., P. armeniaca L., P. besseyi L. H. Bailey, P. cerasifera Ehrh., P. cistena N.E. Hansen, P. davidiana (Carriere) Franch., P. domestica L., P. dulcis (Mill.) D. Webb, P. emarginata (Dougl. ex Hook.) Walp., P. hortulana L. H. Bailey, P. insititia L., P. kansuensis Rehd., P. maritima Marsh., P. munsoniana W. Wright & Hedr., P. pumila L., P. salicina Lindl., P. simonii Carriere, P. spinosa L., P. tenella Batsch, P. texana D. Dietr., P. tomentosa Thunb., and P. webbii (Spach) Vierh. Also, another 66 interspecific hybrids were tested. Although a few accessions seemed to exhibit an unstable form of resistance, it seems unlikely that Prunus selections that exhibit useful resistance to population increase by C. xenoplax will be found.
Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol, present with sucrose in Rosaceae trees, which seems to have a role in plant response to environmental stress. The aim of this study was to investigate variability in sorbitol : sucrose ratio in source leaves of 53 species or hybrids of Prunus. The studied taxa, representing three subgenera and 11 sections of the Prunus genus, were chosen from the Prunus collection at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Bordeaux, France. Young mature leaves were sampled on three dates in spring and summer and were analyzed for neutral soluble sugars using high-performance liquid chromatography. There were differences in sorbitol : sucrose ratio according to sampling date and according to taxon. Sorbitol content increased and sucrose content decreased from May to July, leading to an increase in sorbitol : sucrose ratio. For each date, there was a high variability within botanical sections for sorbitol : sucrose ratio. The highest variability between species for sorbitol : sucrose ratio was in July, with P. cocomilia having the lowest ratio (1.15, w/w) and P. fremontii having the highest ratio (5.59, w/w). When species were pooled according to their geographical zone of origin, species originating from Japan showed the lowest sorbitol : sucrose ratio for all sampling dates. In July, species originating from Japan, Europe, and central to western North America had sorbitol : sucrose ratio significantly lower than that of species originating from Europe to western Asia, China to eastern Asia, and central to eastern North America. These results indicate that variability in sorbitol : sucrose ratio exists in the Prunus germplasm and seems to be related to the geographical origin of the species. Moreover, variability in sorbitol to sucrose ratio is high in the germplasm of different Prunus taxa.
Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) mutations in 7 cultivated Prunus species were compared to establish the phylogenetic relationship among them. Mutations were detected in 3.2 kb and 1.5 kb regions of hypervariable cpDNA, amplified and cut with 21 and 10 restriction endonucleases, respectively, to reveal polymorphisms. Parsimony and cluster analyses were performed. Two groups of species, P. persica and P. dulcis and P. domestica and P. salicina were completely monophyletic. The subgenus Cerasus was the most recently derived, while the subgenus Amygdalus was the most ancestral and somewhat separate from the rest of Prunus. The results also suggest that the rate of mutation in the Cerasus chloroplast genome is significantly greater than for the other subgenera sampled.
In vitro micrografting was tested as a technique for inoculating peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] with prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Cultured `Suncrest' shoots derived from a naturally infected tree (as indicated by ELISA testing) maintained virus in vitro, with virus concentrations in growing tips and folded leaves being several times those of fully expanded leaves. The infected shoots served as graft bases and the source of virus. Grafted tips were derived from `Suncrest' trees that had tested negative for the virus. Leaf samples were collected from the tips following grafting and analyzed for the presence of virus by slot-blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probed derived from PNRSV RNA 3. Rates of successful grafting were 55% and 73% in three trials and PNRSV was found in all tips analyzed. Virus concentrations approximated those found in the source shoots, suggesting that this method should be useful for screening transformed peach shoots for coat protein-mediated resistance to PNRSV.
Effects of scion inclination on root growth and distribution were studied on INRA GF 677 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus) and apple/M.9 trees. At planting, central leaders were positioned vertically (0°) or inclined 45° or 60° to the north and south. Three years after planting, root total dry weight of inclined trees was lower than that of the control (0°, vertical central leader). Five years after planting, the isotropic distribution of the normal root systems was distorted by inclination in both species. Roots were more numerous and more elongated in the direction of inclination. Statistical analysis of root density data, using a polar coordinate system, confirmed that the trunk inclination reduced root development and redirected root distribution. The major effect was induced on GF 677 by 60° inclinations. Tree orientation did not seem to influence root distribution.
Freezing injury to overwintering flower buds of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), European plum (P. domestica L.), Japanese plum (P. salicina Lindl.), peach (P. persica (L.) Batsch.), sweet cherry (P. avium L.) and sour cherry (P. cerasus L.) was found to be associated with an exothermic process detected on the time temperature profile. This exothermic process varied with seasonal fluctuations in the hardiness of 2 peach cultivars and was consistent with the hardiness of 5 cultivars tested on 3 dates during winter. No similar exotherm was detected in pear and apple. These results suggest that flower bud injury in some Prunus species was related to a specific event that involved freezing of a ‘bound’ or ‘supercooled’ fraction of water. This fraction of water remained unfrozen in the flower bud until the temperature fell below a critical level which in our studies was as low as -27°C. Exotherm flower bud hardiness in these fruit species.
Soil temperatures around roots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), and cherry (Prunus avium L.), were modified during anthesis. Cool (1.5 – 9°C) and cold (1 – 4.5°) soil temperatures in the field were achieved with white plastic covers over insulation over snow, and with coolant coils in the soil covered with insulation and clear plastic. Warm (5 – 19°) and hot (18 – 26°) soil temperatures were achieved with clear and black plastic covers over bare soil and with buried heat tapes under insulation and clear plastic. Potted peach seedlings were subjected to freezing (−3°) and warm (18°) soil temperatures in a growth chamber. No advance or delay of anthesis resulted from any of the treatments except delay in frozen soil.