A new and simple protocol for androgenesis in bell pepper is described. The initial medium, a modification of Nitsch and Nitsch's H medium, consisted of a two-phase system of semi-solid and liquid medium and contained maltose as carbon source. The total number of embryos formed was greater with maltose at 40 g·L-1, but embryos developed better at 10 to 20 g·L-1. Depending on the genotype, the number of embryos and plants recovered ranged from 3 to 750 and 0.25 to 8, respectively, per 100 flowers. Further increases in the number of embryos (up to 3561 per 100 flowers) and plants (up to 23 per 100 flowers) could be attained by flushing cultures with air enriched with CO2 at 900 μL·L-1. The ploidy level and the microspore origin of the recovered plants were determined by flow cytometry and zymograms for isocitrate dehydrogenase. Nearly 65% of the acclimated plants had undergone spontaneous doubling of the chromosome number, as confirmed by flow cytometry of leaf nuclei. Isocitrate dehydrogenase zymograms demonstrated that plants originated from microspores and that the two parental alleles were equally represented among the haploid and dihaploid plants.
Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan, Elisabet Claveria and Agustin Huerta
Nancy E. Roe and Peter J. Stoffella
Composts may improve crop growth in sandy soils. A biosolids-yard trimming compost (C) was incorporated into sandy soil at 134 t·ha–1 (49.7% moisture) before applying polyethylene mulch. Fertilizer (F) was applied at 0%, 50%, and 100% of the grower's rate (71N–39P–44K t·ha–1 broadcast and 283N–278K t·ha–1 banded in bed centers). `Elisa' pepper transplants were planted 20 Jan. 1994. Marketable fruit weights were 20, 31, and 32 t·ha–1 without C and 30, 35, and 32 t·ha–1 with C for 0%, 50%, and 100% F, respectively. Pepper fruit weights increased with increasing F rates and were higher in plots with C than without C. Without removing mulch, `Thunder' cucumbers were seeded on 26 Sept. 1994. Marketable fruit weights were similar at the three F levels, but were 23 and 27 t·ha–1 without and with C, respectively. One application of C significantly increased bell pepper yields and a subsequent cucumber crop.
Preliminary experiments using uniconazole (UNZ) sprays at 5 and 10 ppm on bird pepper indicated that UNZ could be used to enhance appearance and improve fruiting of bird pepper, but some refinement of UNZ rates needed to be made. A final experiment was conducted to determine rates of UNZ and pinching level required to maintain a suitable plant size and increase yield and total number of red fruits. Best overall effects were on plants single-pinched 4 weeks after sowing and treated with a foliar spray of 4 to 6 ppm UNZ. Higher UNZ levels produced overly compact plants that required staking of individual branches. Attractiveness of double-pinched plants may be enhanced by delaying UNZ application after the second pinch. Bird pepper, therefore, can be produced as a dual-purpose pot plant by single-pinching followed by foliar applications of UNZ at 4 to 6 ppm.
Yuji Yamada, Masayoshi Nakayama, Hiromitsu Shibata, Sanae Kishimoto and Takashi Ikeda
biosynthesis-related genes during chili pepper fruit development Biol. Plant. 57 49 55 Aza-González, C. Ochoa-Alejo, N. 2012 Characterization of anthocyanins from fruits of two Mexican chili peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.) J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 56 149 151 Azuma, K
Amara R. Dunn, Lindsay E. Wyatt, Michael Mazourek, Stephen Reiners and Christine D. Smart
Capsicum annuum L J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130 75 78 U.S. Department of Agriculture 2005 United States Standards for Grades of Sweet Peppers. 31 Dec. 2012. < http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5050318 > U.S. Department of Agriculture
Timothy Coolong, Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva and Justin Shealey
growth, yield and composition of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) Biol. Agr. Hort. 18 29 36 Bangerth, F. 1979 Calcium-related physiological disorders of plants Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 17 97 122 Banuelos, G.S. Offermann, G.P. 1985 High relative
Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Thomas E. Horgan, Tess Astatkie, Dolores Fratesi and Charles C. Mischke
Methods Experiment. Controlled environment condition experiment with bell peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.) cv. X3R Red Knight was conducted using completely randomized design with four replications. Peppers were started from certified seed in 36-cell trays
Francisco Radillo-Juárez*, Marcelino Bazán-Tene, Jaime Molina-Ochoa and Edgar Damián Rolón-Vejar
The production of `Jalapeño' hot pepper has been increased in the last 10 years in about 6.21% during the period between 1992-2003, with a growing rate of 72%. In Mexico, is an important produce, because it is considered part of the traditional Mexican diet as well as its high productive level. One of the most frequent problems in this crop is the low production of fresh fruits caused by an inadequate fertilization. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four fertilization formulas on the yield of fresh fruit of hot pepper variety Jalapeño cultivar Grande under irrigation conditions The evaluated formulas were (N-P-K-S): 1) 58-51-35-12 (control); 2) 78-68-46-16; 3) 97-85-58-20; and 4) 117-102-69-24. Treatments were distributed under a completely randomized block design with four replications. The formula 117-102-69-24 showed the highest values in the plant height and number of fruits with 62.5 cm, and 48 fruits, respectively. This formula also showed the highest values on equatorial and longitudinal diameters, and fruit weight with 3.36 cm, 11.26 cm, and 33.66 g, respectively. The total yields per plant and per hectare was 1.54 kg; and 38.22 t was obtained with the formula 117-102-69-24. The formula with the higher units of each element showed the best performance and exhibited the highest yield of fresh hot pepper, it was more productive than the control treatment commonly used by the hot pepper growers in Colima.
Anne K. Carter and Dennis Clason
Six varieties of Cupsicum annuum, L were selected for the study (Joe Parker, NuMex Sweet, NuMex R Naky, Tam VeraCruz, Sandia, and Conquistador). All seeds were primed in -.90 MPa NaCl, -1.35 MPa NaCl; -1.24 MPa CaCl2, -1.94 MPa CaCl2, -1.43 MPa K2HPO4, -2.09 MPa K2HPO4, and a nonprimed control at 23C in an incubator for 5 days. Seeds were dried for 2 days at 23C, then planted in soilless media under a 10/14 day/night cycle in incubators at either 23C or 15C. Emergence was counted daily for 21 days. Statistical analysis was performed on the rate of emergence and the maximum number of seeds emerged by day 21. There was a significant variety × treatment × temperature interaction when the rate of emergence was used as the variable. Priming improved the rate of emergence over the control among all varieties, treatments and temperatures, but the effect of seed priming on the maximum emergence varied from one variety to the other. Priming was more effective at 15C. The start of emergence averaged 3.5 days over the control at 23C and 7.3 days over the control at 15C. Seeds emerged an average of 7 days faster at 23C than at 15C. Sandia and Conquistador appear to be sensitive to priming treatments and temperature.
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, María Dolores Muy-Rangel and Arturo Gaytán Mascorro
Fruit water loss significantly affects the quality of bell peppers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fruit weight, size, and stage of ripeness on the rate of water loss and permeance to water vapor. Fruit surface area/weight ratio decreased logarithmically with increases in fruit size, with smaller fruit showing larger changes in the ratio than larger fruit. Mean water loss rate for individual fruit and permeance to water vapor declined with increases in fruit size and as fruit ripeness progressed. Fruit surface area/weight ratio and rate of water loss were both highest in immature fruit and showed no differences between mature green and red fruit. In mature fruit, permeance to water vapor for the skin and calyx were 29 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1 and 398 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1, respectively. About 26% of the water loss in mature fruit occurred through the calyx. There was a decline in firmness, water loss rate, and permeance to water vapor of the fruit with increasing fruit water loss during storage.