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A mass media water-quality program aimed at changing lawn and garden fertilization practices of homeowners successfully elicited responses from individuals by using local cooperative extension offices and newsletters. Traditional extension media tools, such as radio and news releases, were less successful in eliciting requests for further information. In addition, the program reached more people by transmitting the information in the form of a calendar than it reached in the first year through videotapes and slide sets created for use in public and Master Gardener training.

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Abstract

A study of seasonal and landscape effects on residential water application rates used to maintain meso-phytic plants in Las Cruces, New Mexico showed a positive significant correlation between water applied and landscape area maintained. However, only one-half of the variation in water applied was accounted for in the analysis. In 2 years, about 40% more water was applied than the estimated requirement. The principal reason for excessive water use appeared to be consumers’ lack of knowledge about plant water requirements.

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Abstract

The leaf roll-necrosis disorder has been identified in collections of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) in or near the cities of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. Observed symptom differences among lilacs at 6 sites were largely quantitative, indicating the occurrence of incitants common to all locations. Activated charcoal and 4,4’-dioctyldiphenylamine filter chambers applied to branches reduced injury and provided corroborating evidence that air pollutants, including oxidant-type, were causal factors. Monitoring data from New York City and Philadelphia revealed progressively decreasing pollutant levels in recent years that coincided with decreases in severity of the disorder. Fluoride was not a causal agent, based on low levels in leaves. In experimental fumigations of lilac clones, although the results were inconclusive regarding identification of causal pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide induced some symptoms of the disorder. The occurrence of additional field symptoms suggested the involvement of other, as yet unidentified, phytotoxic pollutants.

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Direct seeding and transplanting were implemented on April 3, 1991. Plants aged 20 to 45 weeks were monthly sampled. Fresh and dry weight of root, diameter, length, and root type were recorded. Fresh and dry weight of root were significantly affected only by plant age. The increase occurred at the age of 39 up to 45 weeks. This period coincided with a daylength of 10 hours. Roots of 45-week-old plants had the maximun fresh weight, 187.7 g and dry weight, 26.7 g. The interaction between planting method and plant age had significantly affected root diameter. It averaged 17.7 cm in directly seeded, 45-week old plants. The incidence of forking was significantly affected by the interaction among planting method, plant age, and root type. The least occurrence of forked roots was in directly-seeded plants aged 22 to 39 weeks. Three colors: green, brown, and brownish-green of commercial seeds were recognized. Root characters of mature plants grown from transplants were studied. Brownish-green seeds produced plants having greater and thicker roots. Average fresh and dry weight was 202 and 25 g, respectively. Root diameter averaged 12.9 cm.

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Questionnaires on pesticide use and other aspects of integrated pest management (IPM) were mailed to 1678 lawn care and landscape maintenance firms in the 20 county metropolitan Atlanta area. The survey return rate adjusted for nonapplicable addresses and undeliverable mailings was 25.4%, yielding a total of 350 usable surveys. Responding lawn care and landscape maintenance professionals purchased a total active ingredient of 250,527 lb (93,447 kg) of herbicide, 35,416 lb (13,210 kg) of insecticide and 10,367 lb (3,867 kg) of fungicide during 1993. Most insecticides and fungicides were applied during June, July, and August. About one-third of herbicides were applied during March to May, one-third during June to August, and one-third during September to February. Key pests and plants were identified by survey respondents. Opportunities and impediments to implementation of IPM in the landscape as reported by respondents are discussed.

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This research protocol was approved by the WSU Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Financial support was provided in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Urban and Community Forestry Program on the recommendation of the

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TROPICAL URBAN TREES Urban trees are an increasingly important quality of life issue in tropical cities as economic growth swells increasingly affluent urban populations ( Nilsson, 2005 ). The understanding and management of urban trees in tropical

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Rural-Urban Task Force, The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences.

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Trees are an important component of urban landscapes and mitigate temperature and local microclimate effects, improve air quality by removing pollutants, store carbon and reduce carbon dioxide emission, and lower energy use for heating and cooling

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This research was made possible by a grant from the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Committee of the U.S. Forest Service, along with funding from the American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA) and the Associated Landscape

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