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Hector E. Pérez

the endocarp was weakened through scarification. Germination in this species occurred at constant 20 or 25 °C, or alternating 15/25 °C, but not at 15 °C ( González-Benito et al., 2006 ). Seed dormancy is a common occurrence in palms from various

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Wei-Bang Sun

and plantlet growth in Cercis siliquastrum L Plant Growth Regulat. 25 53 61 Rehman, S. Park, I.H. 2000 Effect of scarification, GA and chilling on the germination of goldenrain-tree ( Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) seeds Scientia Hort. 85 319 324

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, Lizzie Aguiniga and Wayne Mackay

Plant materials and cultural conditions. Seeds of L. havardii and L. texensis were obtained from a nursery (Plants of the Southwest, Albuquerque, N.M.), scarified with concentrated sulfuric acid for 90 min for L. havardii and 45 min for L

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Kanniah Rajasekaran and Rowena Y. Kelley

embryo (SSE) multiplication in this species. Materials and Methods Seed sterilization and in vitro germination. Seeds of Hedychium bousigonianum were collected from greenhouse-grown plants, scarified in 98% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4

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Haiyan Zhang

: Asteraceae) Intl. J. Plant Sci. 168 1027 1033 Bewley, J.D. Black, M. 1994 Seeds: Physiology of development and germination. Plenum Press, New York, NY Boyle, T.H. Hladun, K. 2005 Influence of seed size, testa color, scarification method, and immersion in cool

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Michael Kantar, Kevin Betts, Brent S. Hulke, Robert M. Stupar and Donald Wyse

of scarification, GA and chilling on the germination of goldenrain-tree ( Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) seeds Sci. Hort. 85 319 324 Sacks, E.J. Roxas, J.P. Cruz, M.T. 2003 Developing perennial upland rice I: Field performance of Oryza sativa| O

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos and Ruijun Qin

., Zurich, Switzerland Keçpczyński, J. Keçpczyńska, E. 1997 Ethylene in seed dormancy and germination Physiol. Plant. 101 720 726 Kirmizi, S. Guleryuz, G. Arslan, H. Sakar, F.S. 2010 Effects of moist chilling, gibberellic acid, and scarification on seed

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Thomas O. Green, Alexandra Kravchenko, John N. Rogers III and Joseph M. Vargas Jr.

delving into a method of scarifying the soil, more aptly known as fraise/fraze mowing ( Minnick, 2018 ), to determine the effectiveness of this procedure to control seedling emergence at various soil depths with and without a fumigant (Dazomet, Basamid

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Natalia R. Dolce, Luis A. Mroginski and Hebe Y. Rey

may mimic mechanical scarification, which makes the tissue surrounding the embryo permeable to water and gases ( Hartmann and Kester, 1959 ); 2) the hard endocarp acts as a physical barrier to the expansion and germination of the embryo and cutting

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Khalid M. Elhindi, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdul-Wasea Asrar, Eslam Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Sharaf El-Din and Mohamed Ali

dormancy, various methods like scarification, pretreatment with plant growth regulators (PGRs), and temperature shocks are used to break dormancy ( Copeland and McDonald 2001 ; Hidayati et al., 2012 ). Plant seed germination depends on both intrinsic and