Blossom thinning of `Early Spur Rome' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and `Redhaven' peach (Prunus persica L.) with hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex, 50% a.i.), endothalic acid [(Endothal, 0.4 lb a.i./gal (47.93 g a.i./L)], and pelargonic acid (Thinex, 60% a.i.) was studied in 1995 and 1996. Full-bloom applications of hydrogen cyanamide at 2 pt formulation/100 gal (1288 mg a.i./L) and 2.5 pt formulation/100 gal (1610 mg a.i./L) or endothalic acid at 1 pt formulation/100 gal (59.9 mg a.i./L), once at 70% bloom and again at full bloom, reduced apple fruit set. Pelargonic acid was only effective in thinning apple blossoms when applied twice—at 40% bloom and again at full bloom—at 1.5 pt formulation/100 gal (1.12 mL a.i./L) per application. Pelargonic acid marked apples in 1995 but not 1996. Neither hydrogen cyanamide nor endothalic acid marked apples. A single full-bloom application of hydrogen cyanamide, endothalic acid, or pelargonic acid effectively thinned peach blossoms in 1995; however, in 1996, only hydrogen cyanamide at 2.5 pt formulation/100 gal effectively thinned peach blossoms. Peaches did not show fruit marks with any of the peach blossom thinners.
Olha Sydorovych, Charles D. Safley, Rob M. Welker, Lisa M. Ferguson, David W. Monks, Katie Jennings, Jim Driver and Frank J. Louws
50% iodomethane + 50% chloropicrin (Midas™; Arysta Life Science, Cary, NC). The MeBr formulation was 67% methyl bromide and 33% chloropicrin (Terr-O-Gas; Great Lakes Chemical Corp., West Lafayette, IN). Telone-C35, chloropicrin, Midas, and MeBr were
Kenneth G. McCabe, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, Jake Behrens and William R. Graves
symbiotic N 2 fixation in root nodules of soybean using energy from the sun through photosynthesis ( Calabria et al., 2012 ; Sawyer et al., 2010 ; Schrader et al., 2013 ). Components typically used in soy bioplastic formulations include soy flour, soy
Edward Bush, Jeff Kuehny and Patricia Branch
Three slow-release fertilizer formulations (Osmocote 14–14–14, 18–6–12, and Nutricote 17–6–10) at three rates (1, 2, and 3 lb/yd3) were incorporated into 4 pine bark: 1 sand (by volume) media filling 1-gal nursery containers. Additional treatments included slow-release fertilizer formulations at 1 lb/yd3 fertigated with 100 ppm N 20–10–20 fertilizer. As fertilizer rates increased, vegetative height, width, and dry-weight accumulation generally increased for both pinched and no-pinch mum crops. Fertigated pinch and no-pinch mums were the largest plants with the greatest dry-weight accumulation for each fertilizer formulation. The high rate for all slow-release fertilizers produced the greatest vegetative growth for nonfertigated treatments. This research suggest that higher rates for incorporated slow-release fertilizers and/or fertigation are required to produce maximum vegetative growth.
Steve Kovach, James Brown, Walter Hogue, Larry Curtis and William S. Gazaway
Drip-irrigated tomato (`Sunny') plants were treated with five levels of fumigant in combination with three levels of mulch. Fumigants were metham sodium at two rates, 475 and 950 L/ha, a 67% methyl bromide + 33% chloropicrin formulation (164.5 kg/ha, and a 98% methyl bromide + 2% chloropicrin formulation (329 kg/ha). Mulching levels were 1.25 mil silver on black polyethylene (plastic), blue-black latex mulch sprayed over the plant beds, and no mulch. Plants treated with metham sodium (950 L/ha) had a significantly higher number of marketable fruit than plants treated with no fumigant or the 98% methyl bromide + 2% chloropicrin formulation. Marketable fruit weight was not significantly affected by the five fumigation levels. Plants grown with black plastic mulch had a significantly higher marketable yield than plants grown with no mulch, 58,100 kg/ha vs. 50,800 kg/ha, respectively. The level of mulching did not significantly affect the marketable number of fruit.
Arlette S. Cuomo, Steven E. Newman, Hassan H. Nassar and Ronald J. Harkrader
There are many naturally occurring substances that have the potential to be adapted to modern pest control chemistry. Azadirachtin, an insect growth regulator, is one such naturally occurring compound that has been widely accepted in insect pest management. Quartenary benzophenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) are known to be effective in the control of crop-damaging fungal diseases. QBAs can be isolated from plants in the Papaveraceae. Extracts of Macleaya cordata, a species rich in QBAs, were formulated for drench application to Cucumis sativa `White Wonder' seedlings. The seedlings were grown in a peat-lite medium using 10-cm plastic pots and inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani. Test formulations were prepared with and without QBAs and applied at 75, 150, and 300 ppm QBAs as a 100 ml/pot drench. The QBA formulations that provided effective control of Rhizoctonia solani lost 20% or fewer seedlings compared to the formulation without QBA, which lost more than 60% of the seedlings. Treated plants were evaluated confirming Rhizoctonia solani infection.
Thomas E. Clark, Terence L. Robinson, Alan N. Lakso and Warren C. Stiles
In 1996, benzyladenine, or GA4+7, or different ratios of BA: GA4+7 (100:1, 10:1 and 1:1) were applied to 10-year-old `Empire' apple trees on M.9 at 10-mm fruit size and 19-year-old `Redchief Delicious' apple trees on M.9 or M.9/MM.111 at 7.6-mm fruit size. Each chemical or combination of BA and GA was applied at three rates (50, 100, or 150 ppm) and at 75 ppm with 1.25 ml of carbaryl/L. At harvest, fruits were sampled from each treatment to determine fruit shape, firmness, color, total cell number, average cell size, and percentage of intercellular space. The positive rate response on fruit size and negative rate response on crop load of `Empire' became less significant for each formulation as the amount of GA4+7 in the formulation increased. The same was true for `Delicious', but less pronounced. At low rates of BA, formulations containing GA resulted in more thinning than BA alone. However, at higher rates of BA, formulations containing GA caused significantly less thinning than BA alone. For treatments combined with carbaryl, crop load increased linearly in `Empire' with increasing amounts of GA4+7 in the formulation. The treatment that provided the largest fruit size for `Empire' was BA@150 ppm, while for `Delicious' it was BA@75 ppm + carbaryl. Both varieties showed the greatest reduction in crop load with the 100:1@75 ppm+ carbaryl treatment when compared to the controls. These data suggest that GA4+7 in formulation with BA may inhibit the thinning action of BA at moderate and high rates.
Diane M. Camberato, James J. Camberato and Roberto G. Lopez
soluble form (Fe-EDDHA) to avoid Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis ( Fisher and Argo, 2002 ). Irrigation water acidification and using multiple substrates and fertilizer formulations are particularly difficult for smaller growers. Economics, including the
Kiffnie M. Holt, George Opit, James R. Nechols, David C. Margolies and Kimberly A. Williams
0.3 g·L −1 formulation was sprayed to runoff using an 8-L pressurized sprayer. For the biological control treatments, shipments of the predatory mite were obtained from a commercial insectary (Koppert Biological Systems, Romulus, Mich.). Predators
Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed and Dwayne B. Visser
-term storage. Materials and Methods Three experiments were conducted between 2004 and 2005. All trials used randomized complete block designs with four single-tree replications per treatment. A proprietary formulation of 1-MCP (2% a.i.) intended for