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Heather Kalaman, Sandra B. Wilson, Rachel E. Mallinger, Gary W. Knox, Taehoon Kim, Kevin Begcy, and Edzard van Santen

many pollinators to use flowers ( Comba et al., 1999 ; Portlas et al., 2018 ). Adverse consequences like nonintuitive color preferences resulting from altered color and pigment accumulation, have also been reported in horticulturally modified

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Tina M. Waliczek, Dave Byrne, and Don Holeman

sculpture throughout the centuries ( Cucciniello, 2008 ). In addition, roses are considered symbolic in many cultures, representing various ideas often based on their color ( Hopler, 2017 ). The domesticated rose is the world’s most popular garden and cut-flower

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Mekjell Meland and Clive Kaiser

= no red color and 9 = red color covering the entire fruit surface. In the spring after the thinning treatments, the total number of flower clusters per tree was counted as a measure of return bloom. Statistical analysis. The data were evaluated by

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

. Other colors and patterns arise because of copigmentation ( Kamemoto and Kuehnle, 1996 ) or because of regulatory patterning (stripes or splashes). The important horticultural features of the cut flower are its color, size, texture, shape and showiness

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Travis L. Stegmeir, Chad E. Finn, Ryan M. Warner, and James F. Hancock

evaluated in the field in Michigan and Oregon. The most impressive family was FVC11 [(Frederick 9 × LH 50–4) × (Scotts Creek × 2 MAR 1A)], which had the best combination of fruit size, color, and yield and was composed of four different subspecies: F

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Neil O. Anderson, Esther Gesick, Peter D. Ascher, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, David Wildung, Patricia Johnson, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

—either rounded or star-shaped, RHS red–purple group 69D in color, which creates an “eye” effect in the center of each opening flower ( Fig. 2 ). As the central disc florets mature (post-pollen shed), the “eye” effect disappears as a result of pollen dehiscence

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Sudhakar Pandey, Mathura Rai, H.C. Prasanna, and G. Kalloo

of Vegetable Research, Varanasi. Five plants were identified having fruits with prominent dark green sutures. The flesh color of their mature fruits was orange (RHS 23B; Royal Horticultural Society, 2001 ), which was distinct from those of other

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Charles G. Embree, Marina T.D. Myra, Douglas S. Nichols, and A. Harrison Wright

biennial bearing fruit quality. Adequate flower and fruit thinning improves fruit characteristics such as color and size that are important to the fresh market. Results from the present study indicate that production of ‘Honeycrisp’ could be optimized for

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Ming Cai, Ke Wang, Le Luo, Hui-tang Pan, Qi-xiang Zhang, and Yu-yong Yang

; Wilson, 1923 ). The species is cultivated as a cut flower and flowering pot plant. It is valued for its large and brightly colored inflorescences that range in color from blue to pink, unchangeably or depending on the amount of aluminum in the soil ( Reed

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Suzanne O’Connell

and by the end of January). Good color contrast was based on observations of multitone ornamental kale (i.e., not all green) sold in retail outlets, online/seed catalog photo examples, and observing plant color transitions as ornamental kale flower