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Zhou Li, Yan Peng and Bingru Huang

recent years, a nonprotein amino acid, GABA, has been found to exhibit PGR effects due to its central roles in maintaining carbon and nitrogen balance and its involvement in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism ( Barbosa et al., 2010 ; Bouché and Fromm

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Lawford Baxter and Luther Waters Jr.

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) pods stored In a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 11 ± 1C and in air at the same temperature (RA) were compared to determine the effects of the two storage environments on changes in sugars, organic acids, proteins and amino acids, and ascorbic acid contents within the tissue. Pods were sampled at 3-day intervals for 12 days. CA-stored pods generally had greater retention of sugars, soluble proteins, and amino acids than RA-stored pods. Citric, malic, and ascorbic acids contents of CA pods also declined more slowly than those of RA pods.

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Guohai Xia* and Lailiang Cheng

One-year-old `Concord' vines were fertigated with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mm N in a modified Hoagland's solution for 8 weeks during summer. Half of the vines fertigated at each N concentration were sprayed with 3% foliar urea twice in late September while the rest served as controls. Four vines from each treatment combination were destructively sampled during dormancy to determine the levels and forms of N and carbohydrates. Nitrogen fertigation during the summer only slightly increased vine N concentration whereas foliar urea application in the fall significantly increased vine N concentration. In response to foliar urea application, concentrations of both free amino acid-N and protein-N increased, but the ratio of protein N to amino acid N decreased. Arginine was the most abundant amino acid in free amino acids and proteins, and its concentration was linearly correlated with vine N concentration. Concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) decreased slightly in response to N supply from fertigation. Foliar urea application in the fall significantly decreased TNC concentration at each N fertigation level. Starch, glucose and fructose decreased in response to foliar urea applications, but sucrose concentration remained unaffected. Approximately 60% of the carbon decrease in TNC caused by foliar urea application was recovered in proteins and free amino acids. We conclude that free amino acids account for a larger proportion of the N in vines sprayed with foliar urea, but proteins remain as the main form of N storage. In response to foliar urea application, part of the carbon from TNC is incorporated into proteins and free amino acids, leading to a decrease in the carbon stored in TNC and an increase in the carbon stored in proteins and free amino acids.

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Sara Arscott and Irwin Goldman

Allium accumulate Se as MeSeCys, a non-protein amino acid implicated with superior chemopreventive effects compared with other organoselenium compounds ( Ellis and Salt, 2003 ). Plants that can accumulate Se greater than 100 and less than 1000 μg·g −1

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Sang-Gon Suh, Yong-Sun Moon and David J. Hannapel

The 22-kDa potato proteinase inhibitors (22-kDa PPI) are synthesized as a preprotein with a hydrophobic signal sequence of 40-residue amino acids. The amino-terminal amino acid sequence (10-mer amino acids: 18-Ala-Phe-Ala-Arg-Ser-Phe-Thr-Ser-Glu-Asn-27) of signal peptide of 22-kDa PPI was synthesized. The 22-kDa PPI signal peptide specific anti-peptide antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against the 22-kDa PPI synthetic signal peptide. Immunoblot and Northern blot analysis were performed by using 22-kDa PPI anti-peptide antibody and cDNA probe, p34021, which codes for the 22-kDa PPI, respectively. In this paper, we determined the process of the 22-kDa potato proteinase inhibitor in tuber and wounded leaves.

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Hyoung Seok Kim and John A. Juvik

in Rausch and Wachter, 2005 ). Methionine-derived aliphatic GSs contain an additional reduced sulfur atom. It can be assumed that methionine-derived aliphatic GS biosynthesis may be more strongly sulfur or sulfur-containing amino acid

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan* and William M. Stall

A glycine-rich mixture of amino acids and short-chain peptides (Siapton) (3 g a.i. per L), two citokinin-rich seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extracts (Stimplex and Triggrr) [50 mg·L-1, active ingredient (a.i.)], a mixture of cysteine and folic acid (Ergostim) (300 mg·L-1 a.i.), and a terpenic acid-rich Siberian fir (Abies sibirica) extract (Silk) (50 mg·L-1 a.i.) were sprayed on St. Augustinegrass residential turf at the beginning of the post-winter regrowth in Gainesville, North-Central Florida, to determine their effect on the growth and aesthetics of the lawn. Above- and belowground biomass, leaf color, and density in St. Augustinegrass were enhanced by all the biostimulants, as compared to untreated St. Augustinegrass plots. The best results were obtained, in descending order, with the cytokinin-rich seaweed extracts, the glycine-rich mixture of amino acids and short-chain peptides, the mixture of cysteine and folic acid, and the terpenic acid-rich Siberian fir extract.

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Sung-Do Oh and G. Bunemann

Asparagine and arginine contents in spur buds, leaf buds and terminal buds of shoot were compared in Fuji and Jonagold apple trees during dormant and growing season. Amino acid contents in dormant spur buds were significantly higher in Jonagold than in Fuji, whereas the amino acid contents in shoot bark were not different in two cultivars. Asparagine and arginine contents were considerably higher in leaf and terminal buds of shoot. This phenomenon was quite obvious in Fuji than Jonagold but there was no significant difference in asparagine and arginine contents in spur buds. Flower buds differentiated on summer pruned shoots had higher contents of asparagine and arginine as compared with weak spur buds in Fuji but this was not quite obvious in Jonagold. It suggested that the irregular spur size and poor development of spur buds in Fuji cultivar might be caused by the poor translocation of amino acids as well as nitrogen compounds from shoots and other vegetative organs.

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Liping Kou, Tianbao Yang, Xianjin Liu and Yaguang Luo

Regulation of cell death in flower petals Plant Mol. Biol. 44 303 318 Saftner, R.A. Bai, J. Abbott, J.A. Lee, Y.S. 2003 Sanitary dips with calcium propionate, calcium chloride, or a calcium amino acid chelate maintain quality and shelf stability of fresh

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Peter C. Andersen, Fred M. Rhoads, Steven M. Olson and Brent V. Brodbeck

`Colonial' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants were grown on raised beds with black polyethylene mulch, drip irrigation, and preplant-N rates of 0, 67, 134, 202, or 269 kg·ha-1. Petiole sap was collected 7 and 13 weeks after transplanting. Concentrations of NO3-N, free amino acids, total amino acids, and total-N (the sum of NO3-N and amino acid-N) were examined as functions of the rate of N fertilization. Also, each of these compounds was used as an independent variable as a predictor of fruit yield. Seven weeks after planting, the concentrations of NO3-N and 15 of 18 of the free amino acids were correlated with the rate of N fertilization, but concentrations of bound or total amino acids were not. The amount of NO3-N accounted for 37% of the total-N in the 0 kg·ha-1 treatment, and up to 83% in the 202 kg·ha-1 treatment. NO3-N was highly correlated with total-N for both nonhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed sap (R 2 = 0.98). Thirteen weeks after transplanting, neither the concentration of NO3-N nor that of amino acids, other than asparagine, glutamine, and proline, were significantly related to the rate of N fertilization. On both dates, concentrations of glutamine plus glutamic acid were correlated with rate of N fertilization whether expressed as absolute values or as percentage values. N fertilization rate and the concentration of NO3-N or total-N were related to total fruit yield (R 2 = 0.69 to 0.74), and marketable fruit yield (R 2 = 0.78 to 0.82). N-fertilization rate and petiole sap concentrations of NO3-N or total-N were also correlated with the N contained in total or marketable yield. Petiole sap variables measured 13 weeks after transplanting were not significantly correlated with fruit yield or the quantity of N contained in the fruit. Free, bound, or total amino acids in petiole sap were not as well correlated with fruit yield parameters as were N-fertilization rate, NO3-N, or total-N in petiole sap.