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Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, Leslie H. Fuchigami and Richard P. Regan

. The influence of water and N management on uptake of other nutrients during production for many crops has not been evaluated fully. With some woody perennial plants, growth is enhanced more by minimizing water stress than by increasing fertility ( Rose

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Bruce W. Wood

). Regulation of floral initiation in trees depends on processing of environmental and/or endogenous cues ( Amasino, 2010 ) with initiation in most large-seeded temperate woody perennial angiosperms being primarily controlled by endogenous cues consistent with

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John C. Majsztrik, Andrew G. Ristvey, David S. Ross and John D. Lea-Cox

between container size and application rate for woody perennial categories. Average rates varied between 372–800 kg/ha/year for N, 122–241 kg/ha/year for P 2 O 5 , and 176–433 kg/ha/year for K 2 O for 1-L to 38-L woody perennials, which encompassed a

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Guihong Bi, Carolyn F. Scagel and Richard Harkess

. Foliar fertilization in the fall is considered an alternative to supplying N to the soil of woody perennial nursery plants. Spray application of urea to deciduous plant species after terminal bud set increases N storage without stimulating new growth or

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Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, Rebecca L. Darnell and Jeffrey G. Williamson

a key role in reproductive development in many plants, and stored carbohydrates are especially important in supporting flowering and early fruit development in woody perennials. In raspberry, roots and primocanes are the primary sites for

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Gregory A. Lang

significant. Yet, the woody perennial structure of the sweet cherry and its inherent reproductive and vegetative physiology present perhaps a “final frontier” for crop adaptation to tunnels. Challenging evolutionary traits include potential tree size (in

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Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Nancy G. West, Christine Wiese, Gitta Hasing, Geoffrey Denny and Gary W. Knox

. Hort. 10 242 244 Rose, M.A. 1999 Nutrient use patterns in woody perennials: Implications for increasing fertilizer efficiency in field-grown and landscape ornamentals HortTechnology 9 613 617 Rose, M.A. Biernacka, B. 1999 Seasonal patterns of nutrient

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Dilma Daniela Silva, Richard C. Beeson Jr. and Michael E. Kane

in the establishment of a normal balance between absorbing and transpiring surfaces ( Silva et al., 2012 ). Literature Cited Arora, R. Rowland, L.J. Tanino, K. 2003 Induction and release of bud dormancy in woody perennials: A science comes of age

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Kendra Baumgartner, Phillip Fujiyoshi, Greg T. Browne, Chuck Leslie and Daniel A. Kluepfel

woody perennial horticultural crops (e.g., stonefruits) ( Baumgartner et al., 2011 ). The pathogen kills and then decays woody roots, which in turn reduces crop yield and growth ( Baumgartner, 2004 ), inhibits nutrient and water uptake ( Baumgartner and

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Yi Tan, Baisha Li, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han and Xinzhong Zhang

; Requesens et al., 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2014 ). A high rate of in vitro regeneration is the first prerequisite for successful transformation, but many woody perennials such as Malus species are rather recalcitrant to regeneration. The regeneration ability