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Ying Qu, Xue Bai, Yajun Zhu, Rui Qi, Geng Tian, Yang Wang, Yonghua Li and Kaiming Zhang

, carotenoids, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds (including flavonoids and anthocyanins) also serve as antioxidants and contribute to protection against ROS. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle involves APX, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase

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Adrienne E. Kleintop, James R. Myers, Dimas Echeverria, Henry J. Thompson and Mark A. Brick

collagen accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats ( Pari and Venkateswaran, 2003 ). Both dry and snap bean cultivars contain a number of secondary compounds with potential health benefits including vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and

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Joyce W. Ngure, Chunyan Cheng, Shuqiong Yang, Qunfeng Lou, Ji Li, Chuntao Qian, Jie Chen and Jinfeng Chen

( Helianthus annuus ) seeds Physiol. Plant. 117 179 185 Matthaus, B. Vosmann, K. Pham, L.Q. Aitzetmüller, K. 2003 FA and tocopherol composition of Vietnamese oil seeds J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 80 1013 1020 Mootoosamy, A. Fawzi, M.M. 2014 Ethnomedicinal

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

photosynthetic bacterial Rhodopseudomonas palustris Bioresour. Technol. 113 315 318 Kurilich, A.C. Tsau, G.J. Brown, A. Howard, L. Klein, B.P. Jeffery, E.H. Kushad, M. Wallig, M.A. Juvik, J.A. 1999 Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate contents in subspecies of

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

(APX), peroxidase (POD), and α tocopherol; and 2) production of enzymes that regenerate oxidized antioxidants such as glutathione, glutathione reductase, ascorbate, and ascorbate reductase ( Smirnoff, 1993 ). Accumulation of AOS results in increased

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Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner and Stephen L. Krebs

cells against the photo-oxidative damage through antioxidants such as tocopherols, ascorbate, and glutathione ( Niyogi, 1999 ). Recent studies with several overwintering evergreens—rhododendron ( R. catawbiense ), subalpine fir [ Abies lasiocarpa (Hook

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Howard F. Harrison Jr, Trevor R. Mitchell, Joseph K. Peterson, W. Patrick Wechter, George F. Majetich and Maurice E. Snook

antioxidant potential is greater than that of tocopherol ( Kimura et al., 1984 ; Murata et al., 1995 ; Robards et al., 1999 ). On a molecular basis, oxidative activity increases in proportion to the number of caffeoyl residues in the molecule ( Murata et al

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Kang Mo Ku and John A. Juvik

carotenoids, tocopherols, and flavonoids ( Eberhardt et al., 2005 , Velasco et al., 2007 ). Both vegetables are good sources of the dietary flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, which have been reported as potential anticancer agents ( Koh et al., 2009

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Sheng Xu, Mingmin Jiang, Jiangyan Fu, Lijian Liang, Bing Xia and Ren Wang

-carotenes, and α-tocopherol. The antioxidant enzymes being the most efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, which mainly include SOD; CAT; various PODs; glutathione–ascorbate (GSH) cycle enzymes such as APX, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate

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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez and José Antonio Franco

source of bioprotective nutrients: fatty acid ω3, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential amino acids ( Miller et al., 1984 ; Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 ; Simopoulos et al., 1992 ), glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol ( Liu et al., 2000 ; Palaniswamy et al