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Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, Jennifer K. Boldt, Yizhou B. Ma, Jennifer R. DeEll, Renae E. Moran, Gaétan Bourgeois and Dominique Plouffe

antioxidant compounds, such as α-tocopherol and violaxanthin, as well as the precursors of condensed tannins, catechin, and epicatechin, than do asymptomatic areas or healthy fruit. Similarities and differences in etiologies of soggy breakdown, carbon dioxide

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Peter Toivonen and Linda Herbert

. The blank for these readings contained 0.5 mL ethanol in 1 mL of 0.2 m m DPPH and the absorbance response calibrated against standard solutions of α-tocopherol. In 2002, for all cultivars, a sample of three apples were sliced into eight wedges using

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Md. Aktar Hossain, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Sung-Joon Lee and Hojoung Lee

.J. Bast, A. 2000 Flavonoids can replace alpha-tocopherol as an antioxidant FEBS Lett. 473 145 148 Weiss, D. Tunen, A.J.V. Halevy, A.H. Mol, J.N.M. Gerats, A.G.M. 1990 Stamens and

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Sheng Xu, Mingmin Jiang, Jiangyan Fu, Lijian Liang, Bing Xia and Ren Wang

-carotenes, and α-tocopherol. The antioxidant enzymes being the most efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, which mainly include SOD; CAT; various PODs; glutathione–ascorbate (GSH) cycle enzymes such as APX, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

(APX), peroxidase (POD), and α tocopherol; and 2) production of enzymes that regenerate oxidized antioxidants such as glutathione, glutathione reductase, ascorbate, and ascorbate reductase ( Smirnoff, 1993 ). Accumulation of AOS results in increased

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Chang-Xia Du, Huai-Fu Fan, Shi-Rong Guo and Takafumi Tezuka

system also includes nonenzymatic constituents, such as glutathione, ascorbic acid, α -tocopherols, and carotenoids ( Apel and Hirt, 2004 ). In recent years, growing interest has focused on the idea that the regulation of these antioxidants by an

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, Bryan T. Vinyard and J. Marion White

. Hausman, J.-F. Evers, D. Larondelle, Y. 2007 Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers ( Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of β-carotene, α-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin J. Agr

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Howard F. Harrison Jr, Trevor R. Mitchell, Joseph K. Peterson, W. Patrick Wechter, George F. Majetich and Maurice E. Snook

antioxidant potential is greater than that of tocopherol ( Kimura et al., 1984 ; Murata et al., 1995 ; Robards et al., 1999 ). On a molecular basis, oxidative activity increases in proportion to the number of caffeoyl residues in the molecule ( Murata et al

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Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner and Stephen L. Krebs

cells against the photo-oxidative damage through antioxidants such as tocopherols, ascorbate, and glutathione ( Niyogi, 1999 ). Recent studies with several overwintering evergreens—rhododendron ( R. catawbiense ), subalpine fir [ Abies lasiocarpa (Hook

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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption J. Nutr. 134 613 617 Guzman, I. Yousef, G.G. Brown, A.F. 2012 Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables