Excluding seeded offspring at an early stage could be of great value to the breeder concerned with the development of seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). We used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to identify molecular genetic markers, analyzing 82 individuals of a progeny resulting from a cross between `Early Muscat' (seeded) and `Flame Seedless'. Seven variables representing the traits of seedlessness were analyzed: mean fresh weight of one seed, total fresh weight of seeds per berry, perception of seed content, seed size categories evaluated visually, degree of hardness of the seed coat, degree of development of the endosperm, and degree of development of the embryo. Among 160 10mer primers, 110 gave distinct band patterns. Twelve markers yielded significant correlations with several subtraits of seedlessness, mainly with the mean fresh weight of one seed and the total fresh weight of seeds per berry. Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in high coefficients, such as R = 0.779 for fresh weight of seeds per berry, when the seven markers were included as independent variables in the model. Most of the seeded individuals, about 44% of the progeny, could be excluded using a two-step process of marker assisted selection.
The inheritance of 8 monogenically controlled plant, fruit, and seed characters in Carica species is reported. The gene for red stem is dominant to that for green stem and the gene for red petiole is dominant to that for green stem and the gene for red petiole is dominant to that for green petiole. Genes for white and purple-blush flower colors are dominant to those for pale yellow; while the gene for red skin color of ripe fruit is dominant to that for yellow. However, the gene for red skin color is not dominant to that for orange skin color; the heterozygote has pink-skinned fruits. The gene for ridging on the fruit (carpel fusion lines) is dominant to that for wide groove, which in turn is dominant to that for narrow groove. Spiny vs. non-spiny seed coat produces an intermediate F1, indicating no dominance. The gene for succulent fruit pulp is dominant to that for dry pulp. The gene for bushy branching is dominant to that for sparse branching.
Thirty-six climbing accessions of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) were grown on trellises with minimal chemical inputs in 5 trials at 4 Colombian sites. Mean dry-seed yield of all accessions at all 4 sites was 2.6 mt/ha. Mean yield at the least favorable site was 1.7 mt/ha; at the most favorable site it was 4.8 mt/ha. Although growth was affected adversely on a soil with pH 4.2, the mean yield was 2.5 mt/ha. Mean daily dry-seed productivity rates of all accessions ranged from 15.1 kg/ha/day to 44.1 kg/ha/day for the several locations, in some cases exceeding rates reported for common beans and other legumes at the same location. Mean yield and number of pods per plant varied significantly among sites, dependent upon temperature and soil differences. Days to flower and to dry-seed harvest were relatively stable traits. No relationship was found between yield and seed-coat color. Production constraints were rainfall distribution and acid, phosphorus-deficient soils. These studies demonstrated high productivity of lima beans under adverse and favorable climatic and soil conditions in Colombia
Attempts to select for flower bud chilling requirement (CR) at the seed stage were made in 58 families obtained from crosses and open-pollination of low chill selections and cultivars of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from the Florida breeding program. A nonsignificant correlation (r = 0.08) between midparent bud CR and family seed CR was obtained. A low significant correlation (r = 0.21**) was obtained between individual seed CR and the CR of the resultant seedling. Seed coat removal had no effect on these correlations. Narrow sense heritability for bud CR as determined by parent-offspring regression was 0.50 ± 0.06. The small range in CR of the seed and pollen parents, 300 to 450 and 200 to 400 chill units, respectively, may explain the low correlation values obtained. The data suggest that it is impractical to screen for seedling CR based on seed CR where the CR for climatic adaptability must be held within a range of less than 300 chill units.
Soaking tomato seeds in MnS04 solutions of concentrations greater than 0.5 and 1 M MnS04 inhibited germination during treatment without affecting the viability of the seeds. The emergence and early growth of tomato seedlings and the emergence of onion seedlings in soil was greater using seeds previously treated with 1 M MnS04 than with untreated seeds or with seeds treated with 2 and 2.5 M MnS04. These treatments had no effect on onion seedling growth. Soaking seeds in 1 M MnS04 was effective in supplying the Mn requirements of tomato plants grown in Mn deficient solutions for Approx 40 days. Shorter periods of normal growth were obtained by treating the seeds with less than 1 M concn of MnS04.
The amount of Mn retained after desorption and washing was greater with each increase in the soaking temp (0, 10, 20, and 30°C). A substantial amount of the Mn retained by the tomato and onion seeds after soaking appeared to be located on the seed coat or in the “outer space” of the tissue. With onion seeds, an additional portion of the Mn retained after soaking was located on the exchange sites of the seeds.
Native turfgrasses have received greater attention in recent years because of their usefulness in growing in areas where many other grasses cannot. Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) has good salt tolerance, but the natural germination rate for the seed is low. This is most likely due to the thickness of the seed coat inhibiting normal imbibition of water. Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated increased germination with hand-scarification. The purpose of this research was to compare germination rates of machine-scarified, hand-scarified, and nonscarified seed. Scarifying the seeds by hand results in greater uniformity, but the operation is tedious and time-consuming. Machine scarification is quick, but the seeds have reduced uniformity. Two seed lots, one designated “Modoc” and one designated “Granite,” were compared in laboratory and field germination tests. Preliminary observations have shown that “Granite” seed had somewhat higher viability and vigor than the “Modoc” seed. Significantly greater germination occurred with scarification when seeds were germinated at 14 h of light at 30 °C and 10 h of darkness at 20 °C in the laboratory. Although scarification treatments were similar with the “Granite” seeds, near 80% germination, there were significant differences between hand and machine scarification with the”Modoc” seeds; hand scarified seed had greater germination. The field germination experiment had similar results to the laboratory experiments with “Granite” seed. However, scarification did not aid germination of “Modoc” seed. This is thought to be due to low vigor and associated death of seedlings prior to emergence. Preliminary data confirm the low vigor of the “Modoc” seed as compared to “Granite” seed.
Little scientific information is available describing morphological development of pawpaw during seed germination. To provide this information, a study was designed to outline important developmental stages and describe seedling characteristics within each stage. Stratified pawpaw seeds were sown in vermiculite and germinated at 25°C in a growth chamber. Ten seedlings were randomly chosen and destructively harvested at 5-day intervals starting at radicle protrusion. Length (mm), fresh and dry weight, and percentage of total dry weight were determined for seedling components. Pawpaw seeds have a small rudimentary embryo with all food reserves stored in a ruminate endosperm. Dry weight measurements showed a dramatic reallocation of reserves from the storage tissue to developing seedling parts. Initial embryo length was less than 3 mm, but within 70 days seedlings exceeded 350 mm. Twelve days after planting, simultaneous radicle and cotyledon growth occurred (3.4 and 3.0 mm, respectively), but neither hypocotyl nor epicotyl was visible. Radicle protrusion was observed at 15 days with radicle, cotyledon and hypocotyl lengths increasing to 4.4, 4.0, and 3.2 mm, respectively. Endosperm comprised 99.1% of total dry weight at this stage. The hypocotyl hook emerged after 30 days and endosperm comprised 76.1% of total dry weight. Cotyledons reached maximum length (29.0 mm) at day 40 and the epicotyl was discernible. At 55 days, the seed coat containing cotyledons and residual endosperm abscised and the average radicle, hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths were 182.0, 61.1, and 7.3 mm, respectively. It is suggested that the cotyledons primary function is absorption of food reserves from the endosperm for transfer to the developing seedling.
Developmental, environmental, and genetic factors affecting seed color were studied in the progeny of a cross between two white-flowered (aa) green cotyledon (ii) field peas (Pisum sativum L.): the pale large-seeded Marrowfat cultivar Primo and the greener small-seeded Prussian Blue OSU442-15. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid content during seed development of the parental genotypes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Both cultivars accumulated similar pigment quantities per seed, but pigment loss was greater during maturation of `Primo'. Bleached and unbleached mature seed tissues also were compared for pigment composition. Lutein was the predominant pigment in bleached cotyledons of both cultivars. Only trace amounts of pheophytins were detected in unbleached seed. In both genotypes, chlorophyll A : B ratios were ≈1:1 in seed coats compared to 3:1 in cotyledons. Objective measurements of seed color in terms of luminance (lightness) and chrominance (hue and saturation) were made in YUV color space by video image analysis. Inheritance of seed color was studied in an F2 population derived from the `Primo' × `OSU442-15' cross and inbred descendants. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed color were localized by interval mapping using a linkage map of 199 molecular markers spanning most of the genome and by bulked segregant analysis and selective genotyping. Four genomic regions affecting seed color were detected. A major gene accounting for 61% of the phenotypic variance in seed lightness (Y luminance component) was identified on linkage group V linked to r locus. Another major gene, which accounted for 56% of the phenotypic variance in seed hue (U chrominance component), was mapped to a linkage group containing group III and IV markers. A QTL with smaller effect on seed hue (U and V chrominance components) was detected on linkage group VII. Support for overdominant allelic interaction for a QTL on linkage group I, adjacent to the legumin locus Lg-J, was obtained by selective genotyping of the seed lightness distributional extremes.
Food-quality comparisons between tropically adapted genotypes of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and accessions from domestic breeding agencies showed there is sufficient variability in important nutritional and canning traits among tropical beans to justify their use in temperate-climate breeding programs. Specifically, tropical bean germplasm may be of use to transfer stress tolerance and lodging resistance to commercially acceptable genotypes while the breeder is simultaneously breeding to maintain or improve nutritional composition and canning quality. Seed of 35 bean accessions representing plant introductions, breeding lines, and cultivars were screened for proximate chemical composition, yield, and several horticultural characters. Seventeen of these accessions, including several commercial dry bean cultivars, were selected for canning evaluations. Beans were adjusted to 16% moisture before soaking and processing. Soaked and processed beans were evaluated for water uptake, texture (with a Kramer Shear Press), and general canning quality. Protein content was highest in domestically adapted beans (31%) and lowest in the nonblack tropical array of genotypes (22%). Tropical beans showed a greater tendency to clump in the can after cooking. This indicates excessive breakdown of tropical beans during thermal processing. Nonsignificant correlation coefficients indicated that textural differences and soaking properties of the beans were not associated; however, textural differences were correlated with the final moisture percentage in processed tropically adapted beans. Several tropical genotypes were much firmer or much softer after cooking than ‘Sanilac’, which is considered the industry standard for making canning comparisons. Further evaluation of texture by examining Kramer Shear Press tracings showed that textural differences among genotypes could be broken down into a configuration showing a large shear force component, and a curve characterized by mostly compression. The curve types appeared to be a characteristic of the genotype rather than of seed-coat color, size of bean, or final moisture percentage.
Plant Introduction (PI) accession 507984 of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has partly colored seed coats and either pure white flowers or light laelia flowers. Crosses were made with white-flowered plants of PI 507984: white-flowered plant #1 × the genetic stock t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 and white-flowered plant #2 × recurrent parent dry bean breeding line 5-593. Inheritance was studied in the F1, F2, and F3 of the former cross and the F1 and F2 of the latter cross. PI 507984 (white flower, plant #1) × t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 gave F1 plants with colored flowers and partly colored seeds. The F2 gave a 9:7 segregation ratio (colored flowers to white flowers), and the genetic model proposed is that flower color is restored in the presence of t/t by two complementary genes, Fcr and Fcr-2. That model was confirmed by F3 progeny tests of 21 F2 parents with colored flowers. The cross PI 507984 (white flower, plant #2) × 5-593 gave an F2 segregation ratio of 9:3:4 (bishops-violet: light laelia: white flowers), indicating that the white-flowered PI 507984 has vlae masked by t. Analysis of all the data suggests that PI 507984 is heterogeneous at Fcr and Fcr-2, having all three possible homozygous genotypes, viz., either light laelia flowers from vlaet Fcr Fcr-2 or white flowers from vlaet Fcr fcr-2 or vlaet fcr Fcr-2. The flower color restoration gene in 5-593 is arbitrarily assigned the symbol Fcr. Great variability occurs in partly colored seeds of PI 507984 due to the environment in which the seed was produced.