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-air environment to equilibrate for 30 d with respect to moisture content. Each equilibrated, moistened pine bark type was then thoroughly mixed to ensure homogeneity before being analyzed for physical properties and particle size distribution (described later) and

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1–2 inches were chosen to closely evaluate herbicide and mulch effects and also chose depths that would be used in both the landscape and nursery and landscape industries. Fig. 1. Different particle sizes present in hardwood, pine bark, and pine

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., 2006 ). Pine bark has been observed to be a suitable medium for plant growth ( Pokorny et al., 1986 ), especially in southern nurseries, and is accepted as the primary component of most soilless substrates in container production ( Bilderback et al

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management strategy easily into production. It is hypothesized that a single screen could be used to divide a pine bark substrate into fractions to achieve stratification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the growth effects of a nursery

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indaziflam ( Jhala and Singh, 2012 ). Table 2. Retention of preemergence herbicides in 2 inches (5.08 cm) of pine bark mulch following 1.5-inches (3.81 cm) of irrigation. Physical property analysis. Particle size analysis showed that PS was mostly composed of

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Abstract

Polyvinyl chloride columns (4 × 15 cm) containing by volume either 2 pine bark : 1 moss peat : 0 sand, 2 pine bark : 0 moss peat : 1 sand, 0 pine bark : 1 moss peat : 1 sand, or 2 pine bark : 1 moss peat : 1 sand amended with 3 kg m-3 of 32P-superphosphate (8.7% P) were leached daily with 16 or 32 ml of deionized water (pH 5.5) in 1 hour. Irrigation rate did not affect 32P leaching nor was there a media rate interaction or difference in the percentage total 32P and dissolved 32P leached. Medium 2:1:1 had the greatest percentage (76%) of 32P leached during the 3-week experimental period, however, 55% of the 32P amendment leached from each medium the 1st week.

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North Carolina State University (NCSU) Porometer Method ( Fonteno et al. 1995 ) require specific MCs for different substrates to be tested accurately. Pine bark is generally shipped by truckload and may vary considerably in MC. Peat moss is commonly

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al., 2006 ; Fain et al., 2006 ; Laiche and Nash, 1986 ; Wright and Browder, 2005 ). Although pine bark (PB) is a product/component of pine trees, for the purpose of describing pine wood-based substrates that have recently been investigated, it is

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experimental pine bark-based substrates used to produce Hydrangea arborescens plants. Substrates included conventional pine bark (unprocessed bark, UB), bark particles that pass through a 4.0-mm screen (fine bark, FB), bark particles that do not pass through

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(OM) components in them. These components, primarily composed of sphagnum peatmoss and pine bark, can become hydrophobic, thus reducing wettability ( Dekker et al., 2000a ; Michel et al., 2001 ). The molecules of OM contain many organic acid

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