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et al. (2002) used a similar reduction to 20% of maximum tree evapotranspiration and reported ≈80% reduction in stem water potential by the end of the dry-down period. Osmotic adjustment of Prunus species has been reported to occur after prolonged

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). However, active osmotic adjustment was also reported to develop only in situations in which water stress was imposed gradually for an extended period of time ( Arndt et al., 2000 ). The relationship between water stress and changes in concentrations of

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accumulate NaCl for osmotic adjustment is a nearly universal trait of salt-tolerant plants ( Glenn et al., 1999 ). However, Na + uptake from the medium by plants was positively related to NaCl concentration of root-zone solution, which might also affect the

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—which provide osmotic adjustment in plant roots and leaves. In addition, AM fungal hyphae act like additional plant roots, creating an efficient pathway for increased water and nutrient transport and uptake ( Rapparini and Penuelas, 2014 ). In our study, AM

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photosynthesis, while minimizing carbohydrate consumption from respiration ( Xu and Huang, 2000 ). TNC availability has been widely used as a physiological measure of stress tolerance because carbohydrates provide energy and solutes for osmotic adjustment. The

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osmolytes in plants under salinity conditions ( Delauney and Verma, 1993 ; Misra and Saxena, 2009 ), and it is often considered to be involved in stress resistance mechanisms. In addition to its role as an osmolyte in osmotic adjustment ( Ashraf and Foolad

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). The compounds involved in osmotic adjustment differ widely in different species ( Patakas et al., 2002 ; Rizhsky et al., 2004 ; Vasquez-Robinet et al., 2008 ). Showler (2002) found that Phe, Thr, Val, and total free amino acids significantly

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five species, indicating this species had the lowest in osmotic adjustment ( Table 5 ). Because no plants of lemon horsemint survived, there was no data of ψ S to compare with other species. Generally, leaf ψ S decreased at higher salinity treatments

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trees may be able to regenerate as moderately salt-tolerant plants ( Lotfi Tappeh et al., 2008a , 2008b ). Salinity treatments caused a net K + uptake, which is likely to be the result of osmotic adjustment in tolerant cultivars. Net Na + uptake by

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hypothesis is consistent with our results, showing higher water absorption, stem height and diameter in water-stressed mycorrhizal plants, compared with the corresponding noninoculated ones. Under restricted water supply, plants respond by osmotic adjustment

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