Phedimus kamtschaticus (Fischer) were grown in three experimental crushed brick-based green roof substrates (GRSs) with increasing organic matter (OM) content (10%, 20%, and 40% by volume) and a commercially available blend, Rooflite®, in single-pot replicates in a growth chamber for 6 months. Three unplanted replicates of each substrate were included in the design and received identical irrigation volumes as planted replicates. Three destructive harvests indicated that increased substrate OM increased plant root and shoot biomass; however, plants grown in Rooflite® demonstrated greater succulence in the second and third destructive harvests despite similar substrate OM content. By the end of the growth study, there was no difference in dry weight accumulation between the Rooflite® and 40% OM treatment despite the difference in succulence between the two treatments. Substrate volumetric water content (VWC) ranged from 22.5% to below 5% during three consecutive periods of imposed water stress with no differences in evapotranspiration (ET), indicating plants were accessing substrate water previously assumed to be unavailable. Cumulative water loss (normalized for plant dry weight) indicated a likely shift into crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) around 60-hour postirrigation. Planted treatments (n = 6) lost more water cumulatively (P < 0.05) compared with the unplanted controls (n = 3), although there were no differences in total water loss between substrate treatments.
Whitney N. Griffin, Steven M. Cohan, John D. Lea-Cox and Andrew G. Ristvey
Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert and Lamont D. Saunders
Long-day onion (Allium cepa L. `Vision') was subjected to five soil water potential (SWP) treatments (–10, –20, –30, –50, and –70 kPa) using subsurface drip irrigation in 1997 and 1998. Onions were grown on 1.1-m beds with two double rows spaced 0.56 m apart and a drip tape buried 13 cm deep in the bed center. Soil water potential was maintained at the five levels by automated, high-frequency irrigations based on SWP measurements at 0.2-m depth. Onions were evaluated for yield and grade after 70 days of storage. In 1997, total and colossal (bulb diameter ≥102 mm) yield increased with increasing SWP, but marketable yield was highest at a calculated –21 kPa because of greater decomposition in storage in wetter treatments. In 1998 total, marketable, and colossal-grade onion yield increased with increasing SWP. Onion profits were highest with a calculated SWP of –17 kPa in 1997, and at the wettest level tested in 1998. Storage decomposition was not affected by SWP in 1998. Maintenance of SWP at –10 and –20 kPa required, respectively, 912 and 691 mm of water in 1997 and 935 and 589 mm of water in 1998. Onion crop evapotranspiration from emergence to the last irrigation totaled 681 mm in 1997 and 716 mm in 1998.
Jinmin Fu, Jack Fry and Bingru Huang
Water requirements for `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud., hereafter referred to as zoysia), `Midlawn' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy, hereafter referred to as bermuda], `Falcon II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and `Brilliant' kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., hereafter referred to as bluegrass) were evaluated under a mobile rainout shelter at deficit irrigation levels of 20% to 100% of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), applied twice weekly, between June and September 2001 and 2002. Soil was a river-deposited silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic Arquidolls). Minimum annual irrigation amounts required to maintain quality ranged from 244 mm for bermuda to 552 mm for bluegrass. Turfgrass species and respective irrigation levels (% of ETa) at which season-long acceptable turf quality was maintained in each year were bluegrass, 100% (evaluated 2001 only); tall fescue, 60% in 2001 and 80% in 2002; bermuda, 60% in both years; and zoysia, 80% in both years. A landscape manager who could tolerate one week of less-than-acceptable quality could have irrigated tall fescue at 40% ETa (224 mm) in 2001 and 60% ETa (359 mm) in 2002. Likewise, bermuda exhibited unacceptable quality on only one September rating date when irrigated at 40% ETa (163 mm) in 2001. Bermuda was able to tolerate a lower leaf relative water content (LRWC) and higher level of leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) compared to other grasses before quality declined to an unacceptable level.
Doyle A. Smittle, Melvin R. Hall and James R. Stansell
Sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Georgia Jet] were grown on two soil types in drainage lysimeters under controlled soil water regimes during 1982 and 1983. Water regimes consisted of irrigating the sweetpotatoes throughout growth when soil water tension at 23 cm exceeded 25, 50, or 100 kPa or by allowing a 100-kPa water stress before root enlargement, during early root enlargement, or throughout root enlargement. Water use and marketable yields were greater when sweetpotatoes were grown on a Tifton loamy sand (fine loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthitic Paleudult) than when grown on a Bonifay sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic, Plinthitic Paleudult). Water use, marketable yield, and yield of U.S. #1 grade roots generally decreased when soil water tensions exceeded 25 kPa before irrigation, although soil water stress of 100 kPa during storage root development did not significantly affect yield. Regression equations are provided to describe the relationships of water use to plant age and to compute daily evapotranspiration: pan evaporation ratios (crop factors) for sweetpotatoes irrigated at 25, 50, and 100 kPa of soil water tension.
Marco V. Gutiérrez and Frederick C. Meinzer
Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was measured as evaporative heat flux from drip-irrigated coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Yellow Catuai) fields at different stages of canopy development using the Bowen ratio-energy balance technique. Irrigation requirements were determined by comparing the ETc values obtained against reference values (ET0) derived from a modified Penman equation, and expressed as the ETc/ET0 ratio, or crop coefficient (Kc). In 1991, the average Kc was 0.75 to 0.79 for fields containing 2- to 4-year-old plantings. This ratio was 0.58 for a field containing a 1-year-old planting. Crop coefficient was 30% lower in 1992 due to higher ET0 values and lower stomatal conductance. Measurements made between July and August and again between September and November 1991 suggested that Kc may vary seasonally. Crop transpiration (T), determined with the stem heat balance technique, comprised from 40% to 95% of ETc as the leaf area index increased from 1.4 to 6.7. Behavior of Kc and T during a 25-day soil drying-reirrigation cycle indicated that the crop was able to maintain relatively high levels of gas-exchange activity during periods of severe water deficit.
R.M. Wheeler, C.L. Mackowiak, J.C. Sager, N.C. Yorio, W.M. Knott and W.L. Berry
Two studies were conducted in which `Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown hydroponically from seed to harvest in a large (20-m2), atmospherically closed growth chamber for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program. The first study used metal-halide (MH) lamps [280 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], whereas the second used high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (293 μmol·m-2·s-1). Both studies used a 16-hour photoperiod, a constant air temperature (22 to 23C), and 1000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 during the light period. In each study, canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were highly correlated to canopy cover, with absolute rates peaking at harvest (28 days after planting) at 17 μmol CO2/m2 per sec and 4 liters·m-2·day-1, respectively. When normalized for actual canopy cover, photosynthesis and ET rates per unit canopy area decreased with age (between 15 and 28 days after planting). Canopy cover increased earlier during the study with HPS lamps, and final shoot yields averaged 183 g fresh mass (FM)/plant and 8.8 g dry mass (DM)/plant. Shoot yields in the first study with MH lamps averaged 129 g FM/plant and 6.8 g DM/plant. Analysis of leaf tissue showed that ash levels from both studies averaged 22% and K levels ranged from 15% to 17% of tissue DM. Results suggest that lettuce should be easily adaptable to a CELSS with moderate lighting and that plant spacing or transplant schemes are needed to maximize canopy light interception and sustain efficient CO2 removal and water production.
Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behhoudian, David J. Chalmers and A. Richard Renquist
Abbreviations: DAFB, days after full bloom; DC, drying cycle; E pan , potential water use measured from a Class A pan; ET, evapotranspiration; k c , crop coefficient; WU, water use; Ψ 1 , leaf water potential. 2 Senior Lecturer. 3 Professor. Current
Thomas J. Trout, Lee F. Johnson and Jim Gartung
or satellite based NDVI measurements and ground-based measurements of reference evapotranspiration, ETo. Several western U.S. states, including California, have weather station networks that provide daily ETo for important irrigated agricultural areas
Lucas O’Meara, Marc W. van Iersel and Matthew R. Chappell
growth ( Warsaw et al., 2009a ) and what environmental factors play the largest role in determining plant water use ( Kim et al., 2011 ; van Iersel et al., 2010 ). Knowing the actual volume of water lost on a daily basis through evapotranspiration and
Smita Barkataky, Robert C. Ebel, Kelly T. Morgan and Keri Dansereau
). Citrus grown in Florida receives very low rainfall during winter. Growers irrigate during winter based on evapotranspiration or soil moisture measurements with crop coefficients that range from 0.6 to 1.1; however, none of these methods incorporate