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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang and Bingru Huang

). Measurements. Turf quality was rated based on canopy color, density, and uniformity on the scale of 0 to 9 with 9 being the best (green, dense canopy) and 0 being the worst (dead turf) ( Beard, 1973 ). Turfgrass visual quality, electrolyte leakage

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Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho and Kenneth C. Gross

lycopersicum L. ( Autio and Bramlage, 1986 )], mandarin [ Citrus reticulata Blanco ( Lafuente et al., 1997 )], and pepper ( Lim et al., 2007 ; Lin et al., 1993 ). Ethylene production, respiration, and electrolyte leakage (EL) usually precede or occur

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Zhimin Yang, Jingjin Yu, Emily Merewitz and Bingru Huang

cellular membrane stability was evaluated by measuring electrolyte leakage of leaves ( Blum and Ebercon, 1981 ). Fresh leaves (0.1–0.2 g) were collected, rinsed, and immersed in 20 mL deionized water and placed on a conical shaker at 23 °C for 24 h. The

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Qin Shi, Yunlong Yin, Zhiquan Wang, Wencai Fan and Jianfeng Hua

sulfosalicylic acid and heated at 100 °C for 10 min. Concentration of proline was then determined in this extract by acid-ninhydrin reagent method on a DW basis ( Bates et al., 1973 ). Relative electrolyte leakage. A total of 0.2 g fresh leaf was immersed in a

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Lijian Liang, Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Xinping Jia and Jiale Su

/ F m represents the maximum F v / F m of photosystem II (PS II), and was calculated according to Krüger et al. (1997) . Membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation determination. Membrane permeability, expressed by relative electrolyte leakage

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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, Wenjuan Yu and Bingru Huang

photochemical efficiency analyzer (OS 1FL; Opti-Sciences, Hudson, NH) after dark adaptation for 30 min. Cell membrane stability of leaves was estimated using the measurement of electrolyte leakage from leaf cells ( Blum and Ebercon, 1981 ). EL of leaves was

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Cong Li, Lie-Bao Han and Xunzhong Zhang

)]. The RWC was determined as follows: RWC = (FW – DW)/(TW – DW) × 100. Leaf malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage measurement. Leaf tissues (50 mg) of WT and transgenic tobacco plants were homogenized in 1 mL of 80% ethanol and centrifuged at 16,000 g

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Zhimin Yang, Lixin Xu, Jingjin Yu, Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

). Leaf cellular membrane stability was evaluated by measuring electrolyte leakage (EL) of leaves ( Blum and Ebercon, 1981 ). Fresh leaves (0.1 g) were placed in a test tube containing 20 mL deionized water and shaken for 24 h at room temperature (≈23 °C

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Xunzhong Zhang, Wenli Wu, Erik H. Ervin, Chao Shang and Kim Harich

electrolyte leakage (EL) responses to salt stress in kentucky bluegrass. Bars represent se , and * indicates that the difference between the two treatments for the given sampling date is significant at P = 0.05. Leaf Chl. Salt stress reduced Chl content at

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William C. Kreuser and Frank S. Rossi

first application. All measured observations occurred 48 h after treatment applications except for the scanning electron micrographs that occurred 48 h after the first and second application. Membrane integrity was determined by electrolyte leakage (EL