green industry products such as container-grown vegetables, herbs, and ornamentals. Yet, there is little to suggest that the interest in organic, sustainable, and local products is limited to food. Identifying market interest in organic, sustainable, and
Gwendolyn Hawkins, Stephanie E. Burnett and Lois B. Stack
Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Christine Wiese, S. Michele Scheiber, Edward F. Gilman, Maria Paz, Meghan M. Brennan and Sudeep Vyapari
Container-grown woody ornamental plants may not develop sufficient root systems to compensate for evapotranspiration losses if not properly irrigated during establishment in the landscape ( Barnett, 1986 ; Gilman et al., 1996 ; Montegue et al
Jeff B. Million, Thomas H. Yeager and Joseph P. Albano
, T.H. 2003 Plant canopy affects sprinkler irrigation application efficiency of container-grown ornamentals HortScience 38 1373 1377 Fare, D.C. Halcomb, M. Mullican, S. 1999 Application method affects controlled-release fertilizer response in pot
Kimberly A. Moore, Amy L. Shober, Edward F. Gilman, Christine Wiese, S. Michelle Scheiber, Maria Paz and Meghan M. Brennan
( Trenholm et al., 2002 ). Most container-grown shrubs are irrigated one to several times per day in the nursery. As a result, plants can become stressed when not properly irrigated in the landscape during establishment because their roots are confined to a
Jennifer L. Dwyer, N. Curtis Peterson and G. Stanley Howell
The nursery industry continues to develop improved methods for successfully overwintering container-grown nursery stock. Experiments were conducted using several different species of woody ornamentals ranging from species known to be cold hardy to cold tender. Eighteen species were subjected to temperatures ranging from 20F to -20F and observed for post-stress performance and viability. Rates and timing of acclimation, mid-winter hardiness, and deacclimation of seven species were determined by examining the shoots for injury after subjecting them to controlled freezer conditions. The roots of the same seven species were exposed to three different overwintering systems: in a polyhouse, pot-to-pot above the ground, and pot-in-pot below the ground. Cold hardiness of root and shoot systems and the effects of warming temperatures on shoots were determined as well as the post-stress performance of each species. Results of this research will be presented.
Michael A. Arnold, Larry J. Shoemake and Mitchell W. Goyne
Transplant studies were conducted on Taxodium distichum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus shumardii Buckl., Fraxinus velutina Torr., and Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet seedlings grown in 2.2- to 9.1-L black plastic containers. Effects of half-sib family selection on post-transplant root regeneration potential (RRP) and field establishment were investigated with P. occidentalis. Taxodium distichum, Q. shumardii, and P. occidentalis were used to determine seasonal variation in relationships among RRP characteristics and measures of successful transplant establishment. Post-transplant effects of avoidance of circling root development vs. remediation practices were investigated with Q. shumardii. Effects of container media composition on field establishment and RRP of container-grown plants were studied using F. velutina and C. linearis. Impacts of rotation time on RRP and field establishment were investigated with T. distichum. Rates of RRP were the measure most consistently linked to improved post-transplant shoot growth of P. occidentalis. Utilization of locally adapted genotypes and avoidance of summer transplant were important in establishment of P. occidentalis and T. distichum. Increased small diameter root regeneration was linked to reduced water stress during transplanting of Q. shumardii. Physical characteristics of the container media impacted initial post-transplant growth of F. velutina and C. linearis.
William R. Argo, Brian J. Weesies, Erica M. Bergman, Michelle Marshal and John A. Biernbaum
The rhizon soil solution sampler (RSSS) currently is being used for in situ extraction of the soil solution for nutrient analysis of mineral soils used to produce field-grown crops. In this study, laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of the RSSS for in situ solution extraction from soilless container root media and to compare an RSSS extraction method for measuring root-medium pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and NO3-N and K concentrations with that measured with the saturated media extract (SME) method. A near 1:1 correlation was found between the pH, EC, and NO3-N and K concentrations measured in the extracted solution of the RSSS and SME method in media without plants and in media from ten species grown using three water-soluble fertilizer concentrations applied by subirrigation. More testing is needed with the RSSS, perhaps using composite samples form several pots for analysis. The RSSS shows promise for nutrient extraction in container-grown crops because it is fast, nondestructive, simple, economical, and has minimal effect on the nutritional status of the medium in the pot.
Michael B. Triff, Timothy J. Smalley, Mark Rieger and David Radcliffe
Isolite is a ceramic-like, porous soil amendment purported to sustain plant growth under reduced irrigation and increase plant survival during drought. The purpose of this greenhouse experiment was to determine the effect of an Isotite-amended soilless container medium on: (1) growth under reduced irrigation frequency and (2) water stress during drought of Impatiens × hybrids `Accent Red'. On 2 June 1993, seedlings were transplanted into 13.2 liter black plastic pots containing a 4:1 composted pine bark:coarse sand (vol.) medium amended with Isolite CG-1 granules at rates of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (vol.). Study I. Seedlings were. irrigated with 500 ml tap water every two days for two weeks followed by a 4 week schedule of 500 ml tap water every 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days. In general, growth parameters were explained by irrigation treatment effects and did not differ with Isolite rate. Growth indices ranged from +54% to + 143%, while final visual quality grades ranged from 2.4 to 5.0 (5-point scale), shoot dry weight from 8.7 to 30.7 g, root dry weight from 2.0 to 7.9 g, and leaf area from 0.14 to 0.48 m2. Study II. Seedlings were irrigated with 500 ml tap water every 2 days for rive weeks followed by a two week drought. Plant water status parameters were similar at all rates of Isolite. Leaf expansion rates ranged from + 89% to +98%, white a final mid-day xylem pressure potential of -0.4 MPa and a final visual quality grade of 2.0 were uniform across all treatments. Under these conditions, Isolite did not limit water stress of container-grown Impatiens `Accent Red'.
Amy N. Wright, Alex X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris and Robert D. Wright
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lime and micronutrient amendments on growth of seedlings of nine container-grown landscape tree species in two pine bark substrates with different pHs. Acer palmatum Thunb. (Japanese maple), Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple), Cercis canadensis L. (redbud), Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood), Cornus kousa Hance. (kousa dogwood), Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (golden-rain tree), Magnolia ×soulangiana Soul.-Bod. `Lennei' (magnolia), Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. (blackgum), and Quercus palustris Müenchh. (pin oak) were grown from seed in two pine bark substrates with different pHs (pH 4.7 and 5.1) (Expt. 1). Preplant amendment treatments for each of two pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark sources were: with and without dolomitic limestone (3.6 kg·m–3) and with and without micronutrients (0.9 kg·m–3), and with and without micronutrients (0.9 kg·m–3), supplied as Micromax. Seedlings were harvested 12 and 19 weeks after seeds were planted, and shoot dry weight and tree height were determined. The same experiment was repeated using two of the nine species from Expt. 1 and pine bark substrates at pH 5.1 and 5.8 (Expt. 2). Seedling shoot dry weight and height were measured 11 weeks after planting. For both experiments, pine bark solutions were extracted using the pour-through method and analyzed for Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Growth of all species in both experiments was greater in micronutrient-amended than in lime-amended bark. In general, adding micronutrients increased nutrient concentrations in the pine bark solution, while adding lime decreased them. Effect of bark type on growth in Expt. 1 was variable; however, in Expt. 2, growth was greater in the low pH bark than in the high pH bark. In general, nutrient concentrations in bark solutions were higher in low pH bark than in high pH bark for both experiments. Under the pH conditions of this experiment, micronutrient additions stimulated growth whereas a lime amendment did not.
Kirk W. Pomper, Desmond R. Layne and Snake C. Jones
The North American pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] has great potential as a fruit crop or as a landscape plant. The influence of incident irradiance on pawpaw seedling growth and development in containers was examined in the greenhouse and outdoors. Root spiraling can be a problem for container-grown pawpaw seedlings; therefore, the influence of paint containing cupric hydroxide [Cu(OH)2] at 100 g·L-1 applied to the interior of containers on plant growth was also examined in a greenhouse environment. In pawpaw seedlings grown outdoors for 11 weeks, low to moderate shading levels of 28%, 51%, or 81% increased leaf number, total leaf area, and total plant dry weight (DW) compared to nonshaded seedlings. A shading level of 81% decreased the root to shoot ratio by half compared to nonshaded plants. Shading of 98% reduced leaf number, leaf size, and shoot, root, and total plant DW. Shading increased leaf chlorophyll a and b concentrations for pawpaw seedlings grown outdoors, while it decreased average specific leaf DW (mg·cm-2). In a separate greenhouse experiment, pawpaw seedlings subjected to shade treatments of 0%, 33%, 56%, 81%, or 98% did not respond as greatly to shading as plants grown outdoors. Greenhouse-grown plants had greater total and average leaf area under 33% or 56% shading than nonshaded plants; however, shading >56% reduced root, shoot, and total plant DW. Total shoot DW was greater in greenhouse grown plants with 33% shading compared to nonshaded plants. Pawpaw seedlings in control and most shade treatments (33% to 81%) in the greenhouse environment had more leaves and greater leaf area, as well as larger shoot, root, and total plant DW than seedlings in similar treatments grown outdoors. The greenhouse environment had a 10% lower irradiance, a 60% lower ultraviolet irradiance, and a significantly higher (1.23 vs. 1.20) red to far-red light ratio than the outdoors environment. Treatment of container interiors with Cu(OH)2 decreased total and lateral root DW in nonshaded seedlings, and it adversely affected plant quality by causing a yellowing of leaves and reduction of chlorophyll levels by the end of the experiment in shaded plants. Growth characteristics of pawpaw seedlings were positively influenced by low to moderate shading (28% or 51%) outdoors and low shading (33%) in the greenhouse. Seedlings did not benefit from application of Cu(OH)2 to containers at the concentration used in this study. Commercial nurseries can further improve production of pawpaw seedlings using low to moderate shading outdoors.