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C.M. Baldwin, H. Liu, L.B. McCarty, W.L. Bauerle and J.E. Toler

A 2-year greenhouse study was conducted at Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., in 2003 and 2004 to determine drought responses of six bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) cultivars at four irrigation intervals. Cultivars selected from the 2002 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Bermudagrass Trial were `SWI-1012', `Arizona Common', `Tift No.3', `Tifsport', `Aussie Green', and `Celebration'. Treatments included 5-, 10-, and 15-day irrigation intervals plus a control (irrigated daily). Volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were recorded every 3 days. Turfgrass quality (TQ) was observed weekly and root weight was measured at the end of a 6-week study. `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' produced the highest TQ rating (>7) at week 4 when watered daily. After 4 weeks of the 5-day irrigation interval, all cultivars showed unacceptable quality ratings (<7). However, `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' were able to maintain an acceptable TQ rating (7), compared to `Arizona Common' (5.1) and `Tift No.3' (5.8) at week 2 (5-day treatment). `Celebration' produced 114% and 97% greater root weight than `Tifsport' and `Aussie Green', respectively, when pooled across all irrigation treatments. At the 15-day irrigation interval treatment, six bermudagrass cultivars pooled together produced 78%, 22%, and 11% greater root weight vs. control, 5-day, and 10-day treatments, respectively. When pooled for all treatments, `Aussie Green' and `Celebration' VSWC was 5% and 7% lower than `Tift No.3', and ET rates were 26% and 30% greater than `Arizona Common'. Based on these results, irrigating bermudagrass in 5-day intervals should be carefully monitored.

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Alan L. Wright, Tony L. Provin, Frank M. Hons, David A. Zuberer and Richard H. White

Application of organic amendments can increase dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations, which may influence movement of nutrients and heavy metals in soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of compost sources and application rates on concentrations of soil DOC, NO3-N, and extractable P over 29 months after a one-time application of compost to bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] turf. Few differences were evident between compost sources for soil total organic C (TOC), DOC, and NO3-N. However, the initial P content of compost sources significantly influenced soil extractable P. Increasing the rate of compost application increased soil TOC initially, but levels remained fairly stable over time. In contrast, DOC continued to increase from 3 to 29 months after application, suggesting that compost mineralization and growth of bermudagrass contributed to DOC dynamics in soil. Dissolved organic C was 98%, 128%, 145%, 175%, and 179% greater 29 months after application of 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 Mg compost/ha, respectively, than before application. Rate of compost application had less effect on DOC than TOC, as DOC concentrations appeared controlled in part by bermudagrass growth patterns. Soil NO3-N was generally unaffected by compost application rate, as NO3-N decreased similarly for unamended soil and all compost treatments. Soil extractable P initially increased after compost application, but increasing the application rate generally did not increase P from 3 to 29 months. Seasonal or cyclical patterns of TOC, DOC, and extractable P were observed, as significantly lower levels of these parameters were observed in dormant stages of bermudagrass growth during cooler months.

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Billy J. Johnson, Robert N. Carrow and Tim R. Murphy

Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of foliar iron (Fe) applied with postemergence herbicides on injury, color, and quality of `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy × Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Iron significantly decreased injury and improved quality and color of `Tifway' bermudagrass in conjunction with herbicide treatment. Turf injury was less for 4 to 18 days after the initial MSMA application when Fe was added. Injury was also less from sequential Fe treatment with MSMA + metribuzin (up to 4 days) and MSMA + imazaquin (from 4 to 10 days) compared to the respective herbicides applied alone. There was no difference in turf injury from Fe when imazaquin at 1.3 kg·ha-1 was applied as a single treatment. However, turf treated with Fe and two applications of imazaquin (9- to 10-day interval) recovered from herbicide injury faster than when treated only with the herbicide. Iron did not prevent immediate 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba injury to the bermudagrass, but did hasten turf recovery from injury at 26 days after treatment. With a few exceptions, `Tifway' bermudagrass quality was higher and color improved when Fe was added. However, injury expressed as loss of shoot density was not affected by Fe and only injury expressed as color loss was improved by Fe. Chemical names used: 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba), 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl)-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin), (±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop), 4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (metribuzin), monosodium salt of MAA (MSMA), and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D).

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M.L. Elliott and M. Prevatte

Eco, Milorganite, Ringer, and Sustane natural organic fertilizers, alone or combined with the synthetic organic fertilizer isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), were compared with IBDU alone for their effect on a `Tifdwarf' hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] golf course putting green. Over the 2-year study period, no consistent differences were observed among the fertilizer treatments on the turfgrass growth parameters of quality, clipping weights, or root weights.

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty and Ted Whitwell

Dwarf bermudagrass morphological characteristics following the use of plant growth regulators have not been reported. The objective of this greenhouse study was to determine short-term effects of seven plant growth regulators on clipping yield, chlorophyll concentration, and root mass of `TifEagle' bermudagrass. Growth regulators tested included ethephon, fenarimol, flurprimidol, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Two applications of each compound were made over a 6-week period. Root mass was reduced 39% by fenarimol and 43% by flurprimidol, while other PGRs had root mass similar to untreated turf. `TifEagle' bermudagrass treated with paclobutrazol, mefluidide, fenarimol, and flurprimidol averaged 45% less root mass than trinexapac-ethyl-treated turf. Trinexapac-ethyl was the only compound to reduce clippings and enhance turf quality without negative rooting effects. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (N-[2,4-dimethyl-5 [[(trifluoro-methyl)-sulfonyl] amino]phenyl]acetamide) (mefluidide); [1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione] (maleic hydrazide); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon); and (2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol) (fenarimol).

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy and Elizabeth A. Guertal

/year, although most are roughly 10 to 25 g N/m 2 /year ( Ledgard and Steele, 1992 ; McNeill and Wood, 1990 ). White clover is well suited for use within warm-season turfgrasses and is already a common feature within bermudagrass pastures of the

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Glenn R. Wehtje, Joey N. Shaw, Robert H. Walker and Walker Williams

Various inorganic soil amendments have been promoted as a means of improving the chemical and physical properties of certain soils. To test this hypothesis, a marginally productive soil was supplemented with 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% (v/v) of either selected inorganic amendments or sand. Amendments consisted of commercially available diatomaceous earth, calcined clay, zeolite, and crystalline SiO2. The soil material was extracted from the argillic horizon of a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults). Ability of these soil-amendment mixtures to promote `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy] growth was evaluated under greenhouse conditions, and contrasted to that obtained in nonamended soil. Selected chemical and physical properties that are pertinent to plant growth were also evaluated. The experiment, which was conducted 3×, began with a §60-day period in which both water and nutrients were optimum. This was followed by a 30-day drought. During optimum water and nutrients, no soil-amendment treatment(s) consistently resulted in superior bermudagrass growth compared to soil alone. However, <2% of the bermudagrass tissue that was produced during the drought became green and succulent with the resumption of irrigation in nonamended soil. This percentage was exceeded by all treatments that contained either ≥60% diatomaceous earth (Axis), or ≥40% calcined clay (Profile); and by 100% zeolite (Clinolite) and 100% silica (Green's Choice). Drought-sustaining ability of soil-amendment mixtures was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with water-holding ability, soil strength, bulk density, and oxygen diffusion rate, but not correlated with either pH or cation exchange capacity (CEC). While certain inorganic amendments did improve the drought-sustaining ability of soil, the amount required was generally ≥40%.

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Michael Maurer* and Justin Weeaks

Throughout much of the Southwestern United States, poor quality water and limited water resources require innovative methods to conserve water. No research to date has indicated whether seeded bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon can be established by using subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In 2001 (Expt. I) and 2002 (Expt. II), seeded bermudagrass was evaluated for establishment using SDI. Treatments consisted of emitters and tubing spaced at 30, 46, and 61 cm. The control treatment consisted of pop-up sprinklers. Salinity accumulation is a concern when irrigating turfgrass in areas of poor water quality and low annual rainfall. Salinity accumulation was visible at the soil surface during establishment in 2001, but turfgrass showed no visible signs of stress due to salinity. In 2002, substantial rainfall reduced salinity accumulation during establishment as salinity was not present on the soil surface. Salinity accumulation was greater in most months at the 0-15 cm depth in both years compared to the 15-30 cm depth. Full turfgrass coverage (≥90%) for the control plots in 2001 was about 8.5 weeks and the SDI treatments had complete coverage in 10 weeks. Turfgrass coverage for all treatments in 2002 was 9 weeks. Expt. II had a slightly faster establishment rate due to greater rainfall and different soil characteristics than that of Expt. I. Root count and depth of roots for both years showed roots to 61 cm depth in all treatments. A general trend of higher salinity accumulation at the midpoint between tubing was seen in Expts. I and II. However, after significant rainfall salinity levels returned to concentrations comparable to initial soil salinity concentrations in both years. This research documents the ability to successfully establish seeded bermudagrass using SDI.

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G.L. Miller, L.B. McCarty and I.R. Rodriguez

Establishment of an acceptable turfgrass quality on sand-based golf putting greens presents major agronomic and environmental challenges to turfgrass managers. The objective of this study was to evaluate of five N:P:K fertilizer ratios to aid in the establishment of bermudagrass on sand-peat (85:15 v/v). `Floradwarf' and `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burt-Davy] were sprigged in Aug. 1996 at the Envirogreen in Gainesville, Fla. `Tifeagle' and `Tifway' bermudagrass were sprigged in May 1999 at Clemson Univ. research green in Clemson, S.C. Treatments consisted of N:P2O5:K2O ratios of 1:0:1, 1:0:2, 1:1:1, 1:2:1, and 1:3:1 applied based on an N rate of 49 kg/ha per week. Treatments were applied weekly for 7 weeks. In Gainesville, the best growth rate was achieved from the 1:1:1 ratio of N:P2O5:K2O. While the 1:2:1 and 1:3:1 plots filled in well, they did not experience the same coverage rates as plots fertilized with the 1:1:1 ratio. In Clemson, similar growth was achieved with the 1:1:1, 1:2:1, and 1:3:1 treatments. The 1:0:1 and 1:0:2 plots were slow to establish at both locations. In general there were no differences in root and shoot dry weights of grasses grown in Clemson; whereas these weights were positively correlated to growth rates in Gainesville. These studies indicate that turf will respond to P fertilizer when it is grown in a P-deficit situation and that N or K cannot substitute for balanced nutrition.

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B.J. Johnson

A field experiment was conducted over 2 years to determine the effects of treatment dates with plant growth regulators (PGRs) on performance of `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] × [C. dactylon (L.) Pers.]. For flurprimidol at 0.84 kg·ha-1, the highest injury occurred from 16 or 28 June application in 1987 and from 17 May or June application in 1988. The injury was similar from treatment dates with flurprimidol + mefluidide or paclobutrazol + mefluidide. The PGRs were applied over a longer period in 1987 than 1988 without affecting vegetative suppression of `Tifway' bermudagrass. However, in 1988, the suppression from the 17 May treatment was equal to or better than that obtained when treatment dates were delayed until 1 June or later. Chemical names: α-(1 -methylethyl)- α -[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol); N -[2,4-dimethyl-5-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amino]phenyl]acetamide (mefluidide); (±)-(R*R*) β -[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]- α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)- 1H -1,2,4-triazole- 1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).