Sauveur Mahotiere, Clarence Johnson and Philamenia Howard
Ria T. Leonard and Terril A. Nell
Several pulse solutions were tested for their effectiveness in preventing leaf senescence on four cut oriental lily cultivars (Lilium sp. `Acapulco', `Kissproof', `Noblesse' and `Star Gazer'). Stems were pulsed 24 hours after harvest for 1 hour, stored in boxes in the dark for 5 days at 3 °C (37.4 °F) then evaluated in postharvest conditions. A new commercial product called Chrysal BVB, a proprietary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal (Miami) containing cytokinine and gibberellic acids, was the most effective product tested. Chrysal BVB [1 mL·L–1 (0.1%)] prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission on `Acapulco' and `Noblesse' and significantly reduced it by 82% on `Star Gazer' and by 69% on `Kissproof'. Stems pulsed in Fascination, a commercial mixture containing 1.8% gibberellins (GA4+7) and 1.8% benzyladenine [5.4 mg·L–1 (ppm) each], virtually prevented leaf chlorosis on `Noblesse', reduced it by 50% or more on `Acapulco' and `Star Gazer', and significantly delayed it 8 days on `Kissproof'. A 10 μm (2 ppm) pulse in thidiazuron, a substituted phenylurea with cytokinin-like properties, delayed leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer' but to a lesser extent compared to BVB and Fascination. Chrysal SVB, a propri-etary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal containing gibberellic acid, had no effect on reducing leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer'. None of the pulse solutions had adverse effects on bud opening, flower quality or vase life. Maintaining stems in a bulb flower preservative significantly reduced leaf chlorosis and abscission in all cultivars when stems were not pretreated with a pulse solution or when a pulse solution was ineffective.
Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser
The height above the bud union at which induced feathers develop on fruit trees in the nursery is an important determinant of tree quality for an intended market. The bioregulators cyclanilide (CYC; Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) and a proprietary formulation of 6-benzyladenine and gibberellins A4 and A7 (Promalin [PR]; Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, CA) affected the final height above the union of the lowest induced sylleptic shoot (feather) differently in apple and sweet cherry trees in the nursery. In apple, both products resulted in the lowest induced feather developing at approximately 4 to 20 cm below the height of the central leader shoot tip at the time of bioregulator application. In sweet cherry, the lowest induced feather typically originated starting approximately 2 to 20 cm above the central leader shoot tip height at the time of bioregulator application. Nursery tree height can serve as a suitable criterion for timing bioregulator applications to obtain feathers starting within a specific range of height above the bud union as long as species-specific feathering response characteristics are taken into account. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (Cyclanilide), N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4A7 (Promalin), polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).
Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser
A new bioregulator, cyclanilide (CYC, Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709), was compared with a proprietary formulation of 6-benzyladenine and gibberellins A4 and A7 [Promalin (PR), Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, Calif.] for branching effects on sweet cherry trees. CYC stimulated the formation of lateral shoots on current-season's shoot growth under both orchard and nursery conditions. In the nursery CYC was as effective or better for feathering compared to PR in all cherry cultivars tested. There were no synergistic effects of CYC/PR tank mixes on feather development. Crotch angles of induced feathers were not different from the angles of feathers that formed spontaneously. The growth of CYC-induced feathers was sufficient to produce acceptable quality feathered trees. Trunk caliper of nursery trees was either not affected or reduced to a very minimal degree. CYC is effective for lateral branch induction in sweet cherry, especially in the nursery. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cyclanilide); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4 and A7 (Promalin); polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).
Jing Wei Dai and Robert E. Paull
The increase in the capitula of zinnia plants (Zinnia violacea Cav.) was investigated by analyzing the production of shoots. The effects of removing the buds for capitula and application of BA on the production of shoots were also evaluated. It took ≈40 to 50 days from the emergence of axillary buds to the opening of the capitula at the apices of the shoots from these axillary buds. The application of BA shortened the number of days for the same process. The difference in the number of days from emergence of the axillary buds to that of the first descendant axillary buds was ≈25. The total number of capitula opened was greater in plants with the bud removal treatment than in intact plants. Chemical name used: (N-phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).
Thomas H. Boyle
The effects of BA concentration on flowering and dry-matter partitioning in shoots of `Crimson Giant' Easter cactus [Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri (Regel) Moran] were investigated. Treatments were applied 12 days after starting the forcing phase (before flower buds were visible) and included BA at 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg·liter–1. Relative to the controls, BA increased the total number of flower buds per plant and delayed flowering by 2 to 3 days. The percentage of aborted flower buds increased more than 3-fold as BA concentration increased from 0 to 50 mg·liter–1 and increased further when 100 or 200 mg·liter–1 was applied. The number of flower buds that reached anthesis increased quadratically with increasing BA concentration and was maximal when plants were treated with 50 mg·liter–1. As BA concentration increased from 0 to 200 mg·liter–1, total dry weight of phylloclades decreased, whereas dry weight of floral tissue increased by a nearly equivalent amount. BA increases flowering and alters partitioning of dry matter in reproductive plants of `Crimson Giant'. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).
Cesar A. Martinez-Mateo and J. Pablo Morales-Payan*
Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dipping open `Scania' carnation flowers in aqueous solutions of benzyl adenine (BA) (0, 13, 26, 39, and 52 mg·L-1) and gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg·L-1) on flower vase life. Flowers were dipped for two minutes in BA or GA3 solutions, and visual symptoms of flower senescence were periodically recorded based on distortion, discoloration, and permanent wilting of the petals. In general, visual symptoms of senescence progressed more slowly in BA-treated flowers than in GA3 - treated and control flowers. One week after treatment, the only flowers with satisfactory appearance (slight or no petal distortion, wilting or discoloration) were those treated with BA at the rate of 13 mg·L-1 and GA3 at the rate of 50 mg·L-1.