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- Author or Editor: Zheng Zhang x
To evaluate the performance of four newly developed high-intensity-discharge lamp types on plant growth and production, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tradiro F1) plants were grown indoors under 100% artificial lighting for 17 weeks. The four lamp types were: high-pressure sodium high output [HPS(HO)], high-pressure sodium standard [HPS(STD)], metal halide warm deluxe [MH(WDX)] and metal halide cool deluxe [MH(CDX)]. All the lamps tested were 1000 W. HPS(HO) had the highest electrical energy use efficiency (EUE) (0.98 μmol·m–2·s–1·W–1 at 40 cm directly under the lamp); HPS(STD), MH(WDX) and MH(CDX) had 93%, 72% and 61% of the EUE of the HPS(HO), respectively. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) outputs of different lamp types had the following order: HPS(HO) > HPS(STD) > MH(WDX) > MH(CDX). The percentage red of PAR of the four tested lamp types had the same order as above, but the percentage blue of PAR of these lamp types had exactly the opposite order. As a result, plants growing under the two HPS lamp types were taller and flowered and fruited earlier than plants under the two MH lamp types. Chlorophyll content index was generally greater in leaves under MH lamps than in leaves under HPS lamps. We recommend that the HPS lamp be used for flowering and fruiting crops and the MH lamp would be better used for foliar and compact crops.
Paeonia ostii is recognized as an important oilseed tree peony species with potential as a raw material source for cosmetic and health care products, strong seed setting capacity, high seed oil yield, and abundant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. P. ostii, commonly called Fengdan, is widely cultivated in China. The cultivation method difference has an important influence on the oil-use feature, which is a key index for evaluating the quality of oilseed crops. This study aimed to select an optimal cultivation method to provide the first reference data for high-yield and high-quality seed oil harvesting and to facilitate the understanding of the quality difference in the formation mechanism of seed oil in cultivated P. ostii. This study selected five representative cultivation methods, open field cultivation, sunny slope cultivation, shady slope cultivation, understory intercropping cultivation, and high-altitude cultivation, and investigated the influence of cultivation method differences on the oil-use feature based on the three aspects of seed yield traits, oil yield, and fatty acid compositions. Six seed yield traits (fruit pod length, fruit pod width, fruit pod thickness, number of fruit pods per plant, 1000-grain weight, and seed yield per plant) and oil yield reached the maximum values of 7.75 cm, 6.99 cm, 1.57 cm, 11.33, 290.45 g, 85.8 g, and 30.41%, respectively, using the understory intercropping cultivation method. Fatty acid compositions were mainly identified as α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid, with significant content differences among different cultivation methods (P < 0.05). Functional component α-linolenic acid and total amounts of unsaturated fatty acids reached the maximum values of 46.85% and 65.23%, respectively, with high-altitude cultivation and understory intercropping cultivation. The seed yield traits, oil yield, and total amounts of unsaturated fatty acids were optimal with the understory intercropping cultivation method, whereas high-altitude cultivation was conducive to the accumulation of α-linolenic acid. Understory intercropping cultivation with appropriate altitude increases is recommended as a preponderant cultivation method for high-yield and high-quality seed oil harvesting for this crop.
The application of diffuse light can potentially improve the homogeneity of light distribution and other microclimatic factors such as temperature inside greenhouses. In this study, diffuse light plastic films with different degrees of light diffuseness (20% and 29%) were used as the south roof cover of Chinese solar greenhouses to investigate the spatial distribution of microclimatic factors and their impacts on the growth and yield of tomato. The horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distributions, air temperature distribution, and leaf temperature distribution inside the canopy, tomato leaf net photosynthesis (Pn), and fruit production during the growth period were determined. The results showed that diffuse light plastic film continuously improved the light distribution in the vertical and horizontal spaces of the crop canopy in terms of light interception and uniformity. A more diffuse light fraction also decreased the air and leaf temperatures of the middle canopy and upper canopy during the summer, thereby promoting the photosynthesis of the tomato plants. Pn of the middle and lower canopies with higher haze film were significantly greater than those with lower haze film (19.0% and 27.2%, respectively). The yields of higher stem density and lower stem density planted tomatoes in the 29% haze compartment were increased by 5.5% and 12.9% compared with 20% in the haze group, respectively. Diffuse light plastic films can improve the homogeneity of the canopy light distribution and increase crop production in Chinese solar greenhouses.
Recycled irrigation water is one of the major sources of inoculum and may spread plant pathogens throughout the nursery or greenhouse operation. Chlorination is the most economical method of disinfecting water and has been adopted by some North American commercial growers. However, chlorine has not been assessed as a disinfectant for the common plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora cactorum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. These pathogens were exposed to five different initially free chlorine solution concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 14 mg·L−1 in combination with five contact times of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 10 min to determine the free chlorine threshold and critical contact time required to kill each pathogen. Results indicated that the free chlorine threshold and critical contact time for control of P. infestans, P. cactorum, P. aphanidermatum, F. oxysporum, and R. solani were 1, 0.3, 2, 14, and 12 mg·L−1 for 3, 6, 3, 6, and 10 min, respectively.
The phytotoxic threshold of five woody perennial nursery crops to applications of aqueous ozone was investigated to determine if aqueous ozone could be used for remediation of recycled nursery irrigation water and for pathogen control. The perennial nursery crops [Salix integra Thunb. ‘Hakura Nishiki’; Weigela florida Thunb. ‘Alexandra’; Spiraea japonica L.f. ‘Goldmound’; Hydrangea paniculata Seib. ‘Grandiflora’; Physocarpus opulifolius L. Maxim. ‘Summer Wine’] were evaluated for aqueous ozone phytotoxicity after 6 weeks of overhead spray irrigation in which five aqueous ozone treatments (0, 10.4, 31.2, 62.5, 125.0 μmol·L−1) were applied on a daily basis. The concentrations applied represent levels useful for irrigation system maintenance (pathogen and biofilm control) with the highest levels selected to clearly demonstrate phytotoxicity. Aqueous ozone solutions were prepared and injected in-line during irrigation for 7.5 min every day for 6 weeks, after which growth parameters (leaf area, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, height, flower number) were measured and leaf injury was evaluated. High residual aqueous ozone (62.5 μmol·L−1 or greater at emitter discharge; 0.3 m from canopy) in the irrigation water was shown to negatively affect the growth parameters measured; however, low residual ozone concentrations (31.2 μmol·L−1 or less at emitter discharge; 0.3 m from canopy) did not present any measurable risk to plant growth. Furthermore, even at higher dose levels, leaves produced during the treatment period showed reduced damage levels. It is concluded that ozone residuals of 31.2 μmol·L−1 (at emitter discharge) can remain in overhead irrigation water without negatively affecting the crop species examined under the application protocols used. At the ozone concentrations demonstrated to be tolerable by the crop species examined, it is reasonable to surmise that control of pathogens at all points within the irrigation system will be achievable using aqueous ozone as part of an irrigation management strategy. The use of aqueous ozone in this fashion could also aid in dramatically reducing chemical residuals on crops by reducing the input requirements of traditional chemical controls.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to analyze genetic diversity of 100 accessions of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), one of the widely cultivated fruit tree crops in southern China. Six E-NN/M-NNN primer combinations were selected and a total of 236 bands were obtained, of which 177 were polymorphic (75.01%). An unweighted pair-group method of the arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was used to analyze the genetic relationships. The Dice's similarity coefficient among the Chinese bayberry accessions ranged from 0.75 to 1.00 and was 0.49 between Chinese bayberry and wax myrtle (M. cerifera L.). The 100 accessions of Chinese bayberry were clustered into two groups and seven subgroups. Subgrouping of Chinese bayberry was not related to the sex of the plant and color or size of the ripe fruit, but to some extent the region where the accession originated. However, the accessions from the same region did not necessarily belong to the same group or subgroup, which suggested the presence of extensive gene flow among different regions. Furthermore, close relationships between some morphologically similar accessions were found.
Phytotoxic responses of five container-grown nursery species (Spiraea japonica ‘Goldmound’, Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’, Weigela florida ‘Alexandra’, Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Summer Wine’, and Salix integra ‘Hakura Nishiki’) to chlorinated irrigation water and critical free chlorine thresholds were evaluated. Plants were overhead-irrigated with water containing 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg·L−1 of free chlorine for 6 weeks. The following measurements were used to assess the treatments: visual injury, growth, leaf chlorophyll content index, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf net CO2 exchange rate, and stomatal conductance. All species exhibited one or more signs of chlorine injury, including foliar necrotic mottling, foliar necrosis and chlorosis, decreased plant height, and increased premature abscission of foliage with species varying in sensitivity to free chlorine concentrations of irrigation water. The results indicated that the critical free chlorine threshold of S. japonica, H. paniculata, W. florida, and S. integra was 2.5 mg·L−1 and 5 mg·L−1 for P. opulifolius. Our results suggested that irrigation water containing free chlorine less than 2.5 mg·L−1 should not adversely affect the growth or appearance of ornamental woody shrubs.
To investigate the influence of ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation pretreatment on the sugar metabolism of yellow peaches (cv. Beinong2 × 60–24–7) during storage, the concentrations of soluble sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose, and sorbitol), and related gene expression were determined. During UVC pretreatment, peaches were subjected to a dose of 4 kJ·m−2 when they were placed at 15 cm under a UVC lamp tube for 10 minutes at 25 °C. Then, they remained at 15 ± 2 °C for 10 days. Peaches stored at 15 ± 2 °C immediately after picking were used as the control group (CG). UVC pretreatment reduced the ethylene production rate and resulted in a significant increase in the accumulation of sucrose during days 2 to 8 of the storage period, followed by a lower concentration of fructose and glucose and the upregulation of PpaSS1. The expression levels of PpaSPS2, PpaSS1, and PpaST3 were significantly correlated with fructose concentration, and those of PpaSPS2 and PpaST2 were significantly correlated with glucose concentration. The enzyme activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) was positively correlated with PpaSPS2, PpaSS2, and PpaST2. The enzyme activities of sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) were positively correlated with PpaSS1, PpaST1, and Ppani, respectively. Expressions of PpSPS1 and PpSPS2 in UVC-pretreated peaches were upregulated on storage days 8 and 2, and there was a UVC-induced peak in SPS activity on storage days 4 and 8, which resulted in the rapid accumulation of sucrose. UVC pretreatment could upregulate the gene expression of PpaSS1 on day 2, which could improve and maintain the quality of peaches for consumption.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants. Here, we show that H2S delayed postharvest senescence of fresh-cut apples (Malus ×pumila) in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid, flavonoids, total phenolics, reducing sugars and soluble proteins, and lower levels of free amino acids in apple slices compared with controls. Further investigations showed that H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Apple fruits fumigated with H2S contained significantly higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lower activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and protease relative to controls. H2S also upregulated MdDHAR expression and downregulated the expression of MdLOX2, MdPG1, MdPPO, MdACO1, MdERS1, and MdETR1 in postharvest apple tissue. The present study indicates that H2S was involved in delaying postharvest senescence of apples by acting as an antioxidant and by regulating senescence-related gene expression.