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Xiaohe Song and Zhanao Deng

Gerbera (Gerbera hybrida) is an important floricultural crop in the United States and worldwide. Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii is the most common and destructive disease in gerbera production and landscape use. Gerbera breeding line UFGE 31-19 is one of the few sources of resistance to PM in gerbera and has contributed its resistance to new gerbera cultivars. To determine the mode of inheritance for PM resistance in UFGE 31-19, one of its PM-resistant (PM-R) progeny, UFGE 4033, was crossed with PM-susceptible (PM-S) cultivar, Sunburst Snow White, and their progeny were evaluated for PM severity. Distribution of PM severity ratings among the progeny was continuous but with two peaks, suggesting that the PM resistance in UFGE 4033 and UFGE 31-19 is a quantitative trait, likely controlled by major genes. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) identified 17 molecular markers present in UFGE 4033 and the PM-R bulk but absent in ‘Sunburst Snow White’ and the PM-S bulk. Eleven of the molecular markers were mapped to one genetic linkage group, and two regions on this linkage group together explained 71.1% of the phenotypic (PM severity rating) variance in the segregating population. It was proposed that the two regions be named Rpx1 and Rpx2 (resistance to P. xanthii). Conidia of P. xanthii inoculated on the leaf surface of UFGE 4033 germinated, formed secondary germ tubes, and formed appressoria at high percentages, similar to those on the leaf surface of ‘Sunburst Snow White’. However, P. xanthii hyphae branched significantly less, were significantly shorter, and produced substantially fewer conidia on the leaf surface of UFGE 4033 and its PM-R progeny than on the leaf surface of ‘Sunburst Snow White’. These results should provide a sound foundation for use of UFGE 31-19 and progeny UFGE 4033 in gerbera disease resistance breeding and facilitate further investigation and understanding of the genetic bases of PM resistance in gerbera.

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Zhanao Deng and Brent Harbaugh

Caladiums (Caladium×hortulanum) are ornamental aroids often forced in containers or grown in the landscape for their colorful leaves. The aesthetic value of caladium plants is largely determined by their leaf characteristics. Caladium breeding can be traced back to the mid-1800s when Gregor Mendel conducted his plant hybridization experiments, but information on the inheritance of caladium traits has been rather scant. To understand the mode of inheritance for three typical leaf shapes and three main vein colors in caladium, controlled crosses were made among commercial cultivars and breeding lines, and segregation of leaf shape and/or main vein color in the progeny was analyzed. The observed segregation ratios indicated that a single locus with three alleles seemed to determine the main vein color in caladium. The white vein allele was dominant over the green vein allele, but recessive to the red vein allele, which was dominant over both white and green vein alleles. The three leaf shapes (fancy, lance, and strap) in caladium seemed to be controlled by two co-dominant alleles at one locus. Leaf shape segregation was skewed in some crosses, which might imply the existence of other factors involved in caladium leaf shape development. Chi-square tests revealed that leaf shape and main vein color were inherited independently in caladium.

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

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Sarah M. Smith and Zhanao Deng

The genus Coreospsis is Florida’s state wildflower. One species, Coreopsis leavenworthii, is nearly endemic to Florida and is highly desirable for use in highway beautification. Maintaining genetic integrity is critical for C. leavenworthii producers, growers, and users. Coreopsis tinctoria is closely related to and shares similar habitats with C. leavenworthii in Florida. Previous studies indicated that the two species could hybridize and the F1 hybrids showed chromosomal aberrations and reduced pollen stainability. There has been strong concern that pollen-mediated gene flow from C. tinctoria could contaminate the gene pool and compromise the genetic integrity of C. leavenworthii. In the current study, hand pollination showed that C. leavenworthii and C. tinctoria were highly compatible. F1 hybrids were fertile and readily produced F2 and BC1 individuals. Inheritance studies indicated that the maroon spot on the ray flower is controlled by a single dominant allele and is homozygous in C. tinctoria. This spot serves as a reliable, easy-to-score morphological marker to detect pollen-mediated gene flow from C. tinctoria to C. leavenworthii. Following a discontinuous design, gene flow studies were conducted under field conditions in central Florida over 2 years. The highest rate of pollen-mediated gene flow from C. tinctoria to C. leavenworthii was 4.2% and occurred when the two species were grown 1.5 m apart. Gene flow from C. tinctoria to C. leavenworthii under field conditions followed a leptokurtic curve. Based on the obtained regression equation, separating the two species by 60 m or more could lower the pollen-mediated gene flow from C. tinctoria to minimal levels and protect the genetic integrity of C. leavenworthii.

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Sarah M. Smith and Zhanao Deng

The genus Coreopsis L. is Florida’s state wildflower; there is a strong interest in commercial production and large-scale planting of Coreopsis seed in Florida, especially the seed of Coreopsis leavenworthi Torr. & A. Gray (COLE) and Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (COTI). Both species belong to the same section [Calliopsis (Reichenb.) Nutt.] within Coreopsis and were known to be cross-compatible and produce interspecific hybrids when hand-pollinated or grown in close proximity. Little was known about the effects of such hybridization on progeny growth, development, and reproduction, which are very important to seed production and planting. F1 and F2 interspecific populations between COLE and COTI were created in the greenhouse and then evaluated in replicated field studies in two growing seasons. Results showed that interspecific hybridization between COLE (as the maternal parent) and COTI (as the paternal parent) significantly increased the plant height (by 11.4% to 18.7%), plant dry weight (by 38.6% to 63.9%), and time to flower (by 3.7 to 9.8 days) of the F1 and F2 progeny of COLE × COTI crosses. By contrast, interspecific hybridization between COTI (as the maternal parent) and COLE (as the paternal parent) did not cause significant changes in these characteristics of the F1 and F2 progeny of COTI × COLE crosses. The differences between the two species in responding to interspecific hybridization suggest that COTI played a more dominant role in controlling plant height, dry weight, and time to flower in its hybrids with COLE. Results pooled from all F1 or F2 progeny of reciprocal interspecific crosses showed that interspecific hybridization did not seem to affect the plant height and seedling emergence of F1 and F2 progeny but affected the dry weight, time to flower, pollen stainability, and seed production (per seed head) of these progeny. Heterosis was observed in the time to flower of F1 progeny in 2009. Heterosis was also evident in F1 progeny’s dry weight but followed with slight hybrid breakdown in F2 progeny. Pollen stainability and seed production both showed significant breakdown in F1 and F2 progeny: 53.3% to 81.1% reduction in pollen stainability and 12.6% to 38.2% reduction in seed production, respectively. Chromosome mispairing resulting from reported reciprocal translocations between the chromosomes of COLE and COTI might be the primary cause of low pollen stainability and seed production in F1 and F2 progeny. Maternal effects were detected in plant height and dry weight of F1 and F2 progeny. These results showed that interspecific hybridization between COLE and COTI would result in deleterious effects to both species; thus, it is very important to prevent cross-pollination and hybridization between them in commercial seed production and native plantings.

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

The ornamental value of caladium (Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey) depends primarily on leaf characteristics, including leaf shape and main vein color. Caladium leaf shapes are closely associated with plant growth habit, stress tolerance, and tuber yield; leaf main vein colors are often used for cultivar identification. Thirty-eight crosses were made among 10 cultivars and two breeding lines; their progeny were analyzed to understand the inheritance of leaf shape and main vein color and to determine if there is a genetic linkage between these two traits. Results showed that a single locus with three alleles determined the main vein color in caladium. The locus was designated as V, with alleles V r, V w, and V g for red, white, and green main veins, respectively. The white vein allele was dominant over the green vein allele, but it was recessive to the red vein allele, which was dominant over both white and green vein alleles; thus the dominance order of the alleles is V r > V w > V g. Segregation data indicated that four major red-veined cultivars were heterozygous with the genotype Vr V g, and that one white-veined cultivar was homozygous and one other white-veined cultivar and one breeding line were heterozygous. The observed segregation data confirmed that the three leaf shapes in caladium were controlled by two co-dominant alleles at one locus, designated as F and f, for fancy and strap leaves, respectively. The skewedness of leaf shape segregation in some of the crosses implied the existence of other factors that might contribute to the formation of leaf shape. Contingency chi-square tests for independence revealed that caladium leaf shape and main vein color were inherited independently. The chi-square tests for goodness-of-fit indicated that the five observed segregation patterns for leaf shape and main vein color fit well to the expected ratio assuming that two co-dominant and three dominant/recessive alleles control leaf shape and main vein color and they are inherited independently.

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

Caladium (Caladium ×hortulanum) leaves can be injured at air temperatures below 15.5 °C. This chilling sensitivity restricts the geographical use of caladiums in the landscape, and leads to higher fuel costs in greenhouse production of pot plants because warmer conditions have to be maintained. This study was conducted to develop procedures to evaluate differences among caladium cultivars for chilling sensitivity and to identify cultivars that might be resistant to chilling injury. The effects of two chilling temperatures (12.1 and 7.2 °C) and three durations (1, 3, and 5 days) on the severity of chilling injury were compared for three cultivars known to differ in their sensitivity to low temperatures. Exposure of detached mature leaves to 7.2 °C for 3 days allowed differentiation of cultivars' chilling sensitivity. Chilling injury appeared as dark necrotic patches at or near leaf tips and along margins, as early as 1 day after chilling. Chilling injury became more widespread over a 13-day period, and the best window for evaluating cultivar differences was 9 to 13 days after chilling. Significant differences in chilling sensitivity existed among 16 cultivars. Three cultivars, `Florida Red Ruffles', `Marie Moir', and `Miss Muffet', were resistant to chilling injury. These cultivars could serve as parents for caladium cold-tolerance breeding, and this breeding effort could result in reduced chilling injury in greenhouse production of potted plants, or in new cultivars for regions where chilling occurs during the growing season.

Open access

Zhanao Deng and Natalia A. Peres