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Christopher A. Proctor and Zachary J. Reicher

Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) can be problematic in thin turf, along sidewalks and drives, and especially during turfgrass establishment. Little published research exists evaluating herbicides that will control purslane and are also labeled for turfgrass. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST) herbicides labeled for use in turf for controlling purslane. Experiments were conducted once in 2011 and twice in 2012 to evaluate nine PRE herbicides at one-half maximum and maximum label rates applied over immature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The PRE herbicides isoxaben and simazine consistently resulted in the best purslane control for all three PRE experiments. Experiments in 2011 and 2012 evaluated 25 POST herbicides at full label rates applied to mature purslane plants. The POST herbicides fluroxypyr, triclopyr, and metsulfuron-methyl were most effective in controlling purslane.

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Zachary J. Reicher and Glenn A. Hardebeck

Converting cool-season golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) is desirable because it affords excellent playability, enhanced recuperative potential, and enhanced disease tolerance compared to annual bluegrass (Poa annua sp. Timm.) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), which are common species in fairways. However, converting current golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass with nonselective herbicides is problematic because it disrupts play and decreases revenue, as fairways must be closed for an extended period of time. The objective of our study was to quantify the effect of trinexapac-ethyl (TE), overseeding date, and overseeding rate on the success on the gradual conversion of cool-season fairways to creeping bentgrass over 3 years. `Penneagle' creeping bentgrass was overseeded at 0, 49, or 98 kg·ha-1 in fall, spring, or fall+spring after aerification, and application of TE at 0.0, 0.2, or 0.4 kg·ha-1. Gradual conversion to creeping bentgrass was effective, on perennial ryegrass fairways, with up to 36% cover of creeping bentgrass after 3 years of overseeding. However, only a maximum of 3% creeping bentgrass cover was obtained after the third year of overseeding into primarily annual bluegrass fairways. Fall overseeding with bentgrass at 49 or 98 kg·ha-1 was equally effective and additional spring overseeding did not improve establishment. Applications of TE prior to overseeding did not enhance the conversion. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Aaron J. Patton, David W. Williams and Zachary J. Reicher

Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) requires few inputs and provides high-quality turf in the transition zone, but is expensive to sprig or sod. Establishment by seed is less expensive than vegetative establishment, but little is known about renovation of existing turf to zoysiagrass using seed. Two experiments were performed to determine effects of herbicides and seeding rates on establishment of zoysiagrass in Indiana and Kentucky. In the first experiment, interseeding zoysiagrass into existing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) without the use of glyphosate before seeding resulted in 2% zoysiagrass coverage 120 days after seeding (DAS). In plots receiving glyphosate before seeding, zoysiagrass coverage reached 100% by 120 DAS. In the second experiment, MSMA + dithiopyr applied 14 days after emergence (DAE) or MSMA applied at 14+28+42 DAE provided the best control of annual grassy weeds and the greatest amount of zoysiagrass establishment. Applying MSMA + dithiopyr 14 DAE provided 7% less zoysiagrass coverage compared to MSMA applied 14 DAE at one of the four locations. Increasing the seeding rate from 49 kg·ha-1 to 98 kg·ha-1 provided 3% to 11% more zoysiagrass coverage by the end of the growing season at 3 of 4 locations. Successful zoysiagrass establishment in the transition zone is most dependent on adequate control of existing turf using glyphosate before seeding and applications of MSMA at 14+28+42 DAE, but establishment is only marginally dependent on seeding rates greater than 49 kg·ha-1. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); monosodium methanearsenate (MSMA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(triflurormethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr).

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James M. Rutledge, Daniel V. Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

Controlling mature roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.; RSBG) using bispyribac–sodium (BYS) or sulfosulfuron (SUL) often yields inconsistent results. Attempting to control RSBG shortly after emergence may eliminate or reduce it with fewer inputs and less noticeable creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.; CBG) phytotoxicity than if treated at maturity. The objective of these studies was to determine whether BYS or SUL controls seedling RSBG with only minimal seedling CBG cover reduction. Four separate studies on either CBG or RSBG were conducted in spring or fall of 2007 and repeated in 2008 to simulate spring or fall fairway establishment. Studies were arranged as split plots with application timing (7, 14, 21, or 28 days after CBG emergence) as main plots and subplots were herbicide treatments in a 2 × 5 factorial with BYS or SUL applied once at five uniformly increasing rates of 0, 18, 37, 55, and 74 g·ha−1 a.i. and 0, 6, 13, 19, and 26 g·ha−1 a.i., respectively. Plots were maintained at 1.3 cm and emergence was defined as ≈50% of the study area being populated with one- to two-leaf CBG seedlings. Spring-seeded stands of CBG were safely treated with BYS 14 or more days after emergence (DAE) at 55 g·ha−1 a.i. or less, whereas SUL was not safe by 28 DAE at any tested rate. Fall-seeded CBG was generally less sensitive to BYS and SUL. Sulfosulfuron resulted in excessive damage if applied to seedling CBG before 14 DAE at rates greater than 6 g·ha−1 a.i. and if applied before 21 DAE at rates greater than 26 g·ha−1. Bispyribac–sodium was safely applied as soon as 7 DAE at rates of 74 g·ha−1 a.i. or less. Chemical names used: {2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)oxy] benzoic acid} (bispyribac–sodium); {1-[4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl]-3-[2-ethanesulfonyl-imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3-yl) sulfonyl]urea} (sulfosulfuron).

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Christopher A. Proctor, Daniel V. Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

Mixtures of turfgrass seed are commonly used to establish lawns, with kentucky bluegrass (KBG) and perennial ryegrass (PRG) comprising two of the more commonly used species. In the humid regions of the Midwest United States, KBG is a desirable species, but slow germination makes it difficult to establish compared with PRG. The objective of our study was to evaluate establishment rate and species composition over 3 years of a turf stand seeded with different ratios of KBG and PRG (wt:wt) maintained as a lawn. Repeat experiments were initiated in 2007 and 2008 and conducted for 3 years in West Lafayette, IN, with seed mixtures of KBG:PRG of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 50:50, and 0:100 wt:wt of pure live seed. Plots were seeded late August each year and percent turfgrass cover was rated up to 6 weeks after seeding (WAS). To evaluate stand composition after establishment, percent KBG cover was rated annually in August for 3 years using transect counts after selective removal of PRG with the herbicide chlorsulfuron. Likely as a result of greater crabgrass (Digiaria sp.) competition during establishment in 2007, 100% PRG, 50:50, 70:30, or 80:20 KBG:PRG ratio had the highest percentage turf cover at 6 WAS, whereas there was no difference between treatments at 6 WAS in 2008 when crabgrass competition was lower. Regardless of turf cover during establishment, all treatments except 100% PRG shifted to greater than 95% KBG cover by 3 years after establishment. For the region in which our study was conducted, it may be desirable to seed with a higher proportion (greater than 50%) of PRG to speed initial establishment for customer satisfaction, erosion control, and/or to offset years with high weed pressure. Under lawn conditions similar to our study, seeding ratios with high KBG (80:20 or 90:10 KBG:PRG) will likely shift to a stand composition of greater than 95% KBG within 2 years, whereas all other ratios lower in KBG will likely shift similarly within 3 years. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-N-{[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2 yl)amino]carbonyl}benzenesulfonamide (chlorsulfuron)

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Zachary J. Reicher, Clark S. Throssell and Daniel V. Weisenberger

Little documentation exists on the success of seeding cool-season turf-grasses in the late fall, winter and spring. The objectives of these two studies were to document the success of seeding Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at less-than-optimum times of the year, and to determine if N and P fertilizer requirements vary with seeding date of Kentucky bluegrass. `Ram I' Kentucky bluegrass, `Fiesta' perennial ryegrass, and `Mustang' tall fescue were seeded on 1 Sept., 1 Oct., 1 Nov., 1 Dec., 1 Mar., 1 Apr., and 1 May ± 2 days beginning in 1989 and 1990. As expected, the September seeding date produced the best establishment, regardless of species. Dormant-seeding Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue in November, December, or March reduced the establishment time compared with seeding in April or May. Seeding perennial ryegrass in November, December, or March may not be justified because of winterkill potential. To determine the effect of starter fertilizer on seedings made at different times of the year, `Ram 1' Kentucky bluegrass was seeded 1 Sept., 1 Nov., 1 Mar., and 1 May ± 2 days in 1989 and 1990, and the seedbed was fertilized with all combinations of rates of N (0, 24, and 48 kg·ha-1) and P (0, 21, and 42 kg·ha-1). Fertilizer rate had no effect on establishment regardless of seeding date, possibly because of the fertile soil on the experimental site.

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Eric A. Kohler, Clark S. Throssell and Zachary J. Reicher

Ground ivy is a common broadleaf weed that disrupts turf uniformity and is difficult to control. The objective of this field research was to evaluate cultural and chemical control of ground ivy. Increasing annual nitrogen fertilizer applications from 0 to 196 and 293 kg·ha-1 reduced ground ivy cover by 24% and 32%, respectively. At 26 weeks after treatment, 1.1 kg·ha-1 isoxaben applied in May limited ground ivy spread by 34% compared to the control. Triclopyr, 2,4-D, or fluroxypyr applied at the highest-labeled rate in October provided superior ground ivy control by the following May. Combining an annual fertility program of 196 kg·ha-1 nitrogen and an application of 1.1 kg·ha-1 isoxaben with or after an application of 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, or triclopyr in the fall can maximize ground ivy control. Chemical names used: N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (isoxaben); [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid (triclopyr); (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); [(4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-pyridyl)oxy]acetic acid (fluroxypyr).

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Zachary J. Reicher, Clark S. Throssell and Daniel V. Weisenberger

Little documentation exists on the success of seeding cool-season turfgrasses in the late fall, winter and spring. The objectives of these two studies were to document the success of seeding Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at less-than-optimum times of the year, and to determine if N and P fertilizer requirements vary with seeding date of Kentucky bluegrass. `Ram I' Kentucky bluegrass, `Fiesta' perennial ryegrass, and `Mustang' tall fescue were seeded on 1 Sept., 1 Oct., 1 Nov., 1 Dec., 1 Mar., 1 Apr., and 1 May ± 2 days beginning in 1989 and 1990. As expected, the September seeding date produced the best establishment, regardless of species. Dormant-seeding Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue in November, December, or March reduced the establishment time compared with seeding in April or May. Seeding perennial ryegrass in November, December, or March may not be justified because of winterkill potential. To determine the effect of starter fertilizer on seedings made at different times of the year, `Ram 1' Kentucky bluegrass was seeded 1 Sept., 1 Nov., 1 Mar., and 1 May ± 2 days in 1989 and 1990, and the seedbed was fertilized with all combinations of rates of N (0, 24, and 48 kg·ha-1) and P (0, 21, and 42 kg·ha-1). Fertilizer rate had no effect on establishment regardless of seeding date, possibly because of the fertile soil on the experimental site.

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Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

Preemergence (PRE) herbicides are used to control crabgrass (Digitaria spp.). Single spring applications are common in areas with relatively low crabgrass pressure, whereas sequential applications often are used to extend control in locations with high crabgrass pressure. Our objectives were to determine if changing a.i. in initial and sequential applications affects crabgrass control and if single spring applications of tank-mixed PRE herbicides provide season-long crabgrass control. Studies were conducted 2009, 2010, and 2011 in West Lafayette, IN, and 2011 in Wymore, NE. The PRE herbicides prodiamine, pendimethalin, and dithiopyr were tested using different application strategies. Sequential applications were applied mid-April and mid-June using all possible combinations of the three herbicides and untreated for the initial and sequential application. These herbicides also were applied mid-April as single full-rate PRE application or as a tank mixture of two PRE herbicides at half-plus-half or half-plus-quarter rate. Season-long crabgrass control was consistently achieved using sequential applications regardless which of the three herbicides was used for initial or sequential applications. Single applications of tank mixtures also provided consistent crabgrass control, equivalent to single full-rate applications of the individual PRE herbicides. Tank mixtures of half-plus-quarter rate and single half-rate applications resulted in more crabgrass cover than single full-rate or half-plus-half rate applications regardless of the herbicide applied.

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Glenn A. Hardebeck, Ronald F. Turco, Richard Latin and Zachary J. Reicher

Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 is suggested as a biological control for Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (F.T. Bennett) and brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) on golf courses. To overcome application difficulties, a field bioreactor is used to grow Tx-1 daily and then inject into nightly irrigation on the golf course. Though Tx-1 shows some promise for disease control in vitro, it is relatively untested under field conditions. We conducted three field experiments to 1) evaluate the efficacy Tx-1 when applied through an irrigation system for the control of dollar spot and brown patch; 2) determine if there is an interaction between nitrogen fertility or fungicides on efficacy of Tx-1; and 3) determine if Tx-1 can extend the duration of dollar spot control by a single application of fungicide. Nightly applications of Tx-1 through irrigation did not affect brown patch on `Astoria' colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris Sibth.) during the 2 years of our study. Tx-1 reduced dollar spot in `Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) by 37% in 1998 compared to non-Tx-1 treatments, but Tx-1 had no effect on dollar spot in 1999. Under low disease pressure, Tx-1 increased the dollar spot control of fungicides by 32% and increased the duration of control by 2.6 days. However, Tx-1 had no effect on fungicide efficacy or duration of control later in the summer when dollar spot pressure was high. Fungicides did not negatively affect Tx-1's control of brown patch or dollar spot, nor did fertilizer regime affect brown patch or dollar spot control by Tx-1. Although delivery of Tx-1 in our studies was optimized, disease control was marginal and occurred only under low disease pressure. Therefore, we conclude Tx-1 has limited practical value for turfgrass disease control on golf courses.