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Raymond L. Granger, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, and Yvon Groleau

In experimental plots established in 1989, `Spencer', `Empire', `MacSpur', and `Lobo' trees grafted on the in vitro-propagated Ottawa 3 (0.3) rootstock were trained in the triple axis and in the slender spindle systems. They were planted at 5 (between rows) × 2.04 m and laid out in a split plot array with four replicates. There were five trees per subplot unit. All trees were trickle-irrigated every year. Fruit thinning was chemically done for the first time in 1993. Trees from this experiment came into bearing in 1991, and their total cumulative yield was significantly superior in the case of trees of the Spindlebush system. Since no interactions were found, we cannot conclude that any given combination is better than the others. `Lobo', which has averaged nearly 21 tonnes/ha per tree, was best in terms of total cumulative yield and also in terms of yield efficiency. `MacSpur' and `Empire' were the second best ones in yield efficiency, and `Spencer' was significantly lower. Fruit size was very good for all combinations in 1993. At their fifth-leaf stage in 1993, the yield of `Empire' trees from this experiment was higher by an average of more than 1 kg per tree than that of comparable trees of conventionally propagated O.3 trees planted in adjacent test plots. The tree vigor of the micropopagated O.3 trees was better than that of the conventionally propagated ones as revealed by the trees' trunk and canopy development. However, a few trees exhibited slight burr-knot growth on their trunk. This has never been observed on the conventionally propagated O.3 rootstock.

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Raymond L. Granger, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, and Yvon Groleau

In 1988 a randomized complete block design with five blocks was used to evaluate the performance of four cultivars (`Empire', `Cortland', `Summerland McIntosh' and `Lobo') grafted on four rootstocks {Budagovsky(Bud.)9, Malling(M.)7,Ottawa(O.)3 and Malling Merton(M.M.)111}. The sixteen cultivar-rootstocks combinations were planted randomly at 2.5m apart in the row. The distance between the rows was 5m. The trees have been trickle irrigated every year and came into bearing in 1990. On the basis of cumulative yield efficiency the combination `Lobo'/O.3 was significantly superior to all others. The second best performer was `Empire'/O.3 followed by `Lobo'/Bud9. `Empire'MM.111, `Summerland McIntosh'/M.M.111, `Cortland'/M.M.111, `Summerland McIntosh'/M.7 and `Empire'/M.7 had the least cumulative yield efficiency. Generally the cultivar `Lobo' was superior to others and O.3 was the best rootstock followed by Bud.9, M.7 and M.M.111.

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Johanne Cousineau, Raymond Granger, Yvon Groleau, Gilles Rousselle, and Lloyd P.S. Spangelo

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Rong Tsao, Raymond Yang, Inteaz Alli, Robert Prange, and Robert Demoy

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Yvon Groleau, Johanne Cousineau, Odile Carisse, and Jennifer DeEll

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Yvon Groleau, Johanne Cousineau, Odile Carisse, and Jennifer DeEll

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Audrey Levasseur, Raymond Granger, Gilles L. Rousselle, and Campbell Davidson

Two hundred and nine hybrid seedlings developed by crossing Nertchinsk × M.9, Osman × Heyer 12, and Nertchinsk × M.26 were evaluated since 1970 in Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Horticultural Research and Development center (HRDC), Quebec. Canada. `McIntosh' was used as the scion. Seven of these rootstocks obtained from crossing `Nertchinsk' with M.9 and M.26 were found to be winter hardy, disease resistant, dwarfing, with good yield efficiency and easier to propagate than O.3 under North Eastern Central Canada climate. O3A, a mutation of O.3 (Ottawa 3) was also added to the advanced lines and evaluated along with seven rootstocks in replicated trials compared to M.26, M.9, M.111 and O.3 in four locations during 1995–2002. These seven rootstocks (SJM15, SJM44, SJM127, SJM150, SJM167, SJM188, SJM189, along with O3A are being released for commercial evaluation.

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Odile Carisse, Vicky Toussaint, Raymond Granger, and Gilles Rousselle

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Odile Carisse, Vicky Toussaint, Raymond Granger, and Gilles Rousselle

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Odile Carisse, Vicky Toussaint, Raymond Granger, and Gilles Rousselle