Bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) harvested from two cultivation areas were used to investigate the amount of accumulated sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in four sections along the length of a bamboo shoot. Bamboo shoots harvested from above ground (emerged bamboo shoot) and underground of the same cultivation area were also used to study the changes in sugar content during storage at both 5 and 25 °C. The amounts of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar of underground bamboo shoots were higher than those of emerged shoots. Sucrose content in the apical section was significantly higher than that in other sections. Meanwhile, higher amounts of glucose, fructose, and total sugar (the sum of sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were observed in the basal section. Changes in sugar content were also observed during storage. The fresh, unpeeled bamboo shoots have particular cellular chemical properties and respond differently to storage duration and condition depending on harvest maturity.