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Yulan Xiao and Toyoki Kozai

A photoautotrophic or sugar-free medium micropropagation system (PAM) using five large culture vessels (volume = 120 L each) with a forced ventilation unit for supplying CO2-enriched air was developed and applied to commercial production of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana) and china fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantlets. The culture period of calla lily plantlets in the PAM was reduced by 50%, compared with that in a conventional, photomixotrophic micropropagation system (PMM) using small vessels each containing a sugar-containing medium. Percent survival ex vitro of calla lily plantlets from the PAM was 95%, while that from the PMM was 60%. The production cost of calla lily in the PAM was reduced by about 40%, compared with that in the PMM, and the initial investment per plantlet for the PAM was ≈10% lower than that for the PMM. The sales price of ex vitro acclimatized calla lily plantlet was increased by 25% due to its higher quality, compared with plantlets produced in the PMM.

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Zengqiang Ma, Shishang Li, Meijun Zhang, Shihao Jiang, and Yulan Xiao

Anoectochilus formosanus, a medicinal plant used to treat hypertension, lung disease, and liver disease, was grown to maximize biomass and secondary metabolite production in a controlled environment under four levels of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), namely, 10, 30, 60, or 90 μmol·m−2·s−1, that is L10, L30, L60, and L90 treatments, respectively. On Day 45, all growth values were greatest for the L30 plants. Dry weight was lowest for the L10 plants. Leaf area, stem length, and fresh weight were lowest for the L90 plants. The chlorophyll concentration was highest in the L10 treatment and decreased with increasing PPF. Electron transport ratios of leaves were highest in the L30 treatment and lowest in the L90 for the second leaf (counted down from the apex) and in the L10 for the third leaf. An increase in light intensity from 10 to 60 μmol·m−2·s−1 increased the superoxide dismutase activity and was associated with an increase in the total flavonoid concentration. The total flavonoid concentration (mg·g−1 DW) was greatest in the L60 and lowest in the L90. However, the total flavonoid content (mg/plant) was highest in the L30 plants as a result of great biomass. The results indicated that A. formosanus is a typical shade plant suitable to grow under low light intensity at PPF of 30 to 50 μmol·m−2·s−1 for both growth and production of total flavonoid. A light intensity of 90 μmol·m−2·s−1 induced stress on plant growth and reduced photosynthetic capability and the flavonoid accumulation.

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Meijun Zhang, Duanduan Zhao, Zengqiang Ma, Xuedong Li, and Yulan Xiao

Momordica grosvenori plantlets were cultured in vitro for 26 d on sucrose- and hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with four levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), namely 25, 50, 100, or 200 μmol·m−2·s−1, and a CO2 concentration of 1000 μmol·mol−1 in the culture room [i.e., photoautotrophic micropropagation (PA) treatments]. The control treatment was a photomixotrophic culture using MS medium containing sucrose and NAA with a CO2 concentration of 400 μmol·mol−1 in the culture room and a PPFD of 25 μmol·m−2·s−1. Based on the results, a second experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and sucrose on callus formation. For this, plantlets were grown in the absence and presence of either NAA or sucrose. Compared with the control, the PA plantlet had a well-developed rooting system, better shoot, greater chlorophyll content, and higher electron transport rate and the ex vitro survival percentage was increased by 31%. Both sucrose and NAA stimulated callus formation on the shoot bases of control plantlets, whereas calluses did not form on the plantlets grown in sucrose- and hormone-free medium. The stronger light intensities increased the fresh and dry weight of plantlets. A PPFD of 100 μmol·m−2·s−1 was more suitable for the growth of M. grosvenori plantlets. Therefore, photoautotrophic plantlets grown at high light intensities would be better suited to the intense irradiance found in sunlight.