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- Author or Editor: Yuan Gao x
Camellia oleifera is an important woody edible oil plant in southern China. In this study, the developmental differences in ovules at different positions in the ovary of C. oleifera were observed. The developmental type and characteristics of aborted ovules, ratios of normal and aborted ovules, and their developmental differences after flowering were examined. Ovules near the stylar end and in the middle exhibit normal development and are able to form embryo sacs; lower ovules near the pedicel end are usually aborted. The proportion of abortion of four examined cultivars ranges from 10.2% to 33.3%. Aborted ovules can be divided into four categories: 1) nascent egg apparatus lacking distinguishable cells; 2) completely absent egg apparatus structure consisting of flocculent tissue; 3) lack of tissue, comprising only integument cells; and 4) the inner integument not constituting a micropyle channel, with incomplete egg apparatus development and generating abnormal ovules. At 120 days after pollination (DAP), significant distinguishable size differences were found between fertile and aborted ovules; aborted ovules ceased growth at 180 DAP. On fruit maturation, aborted seeds were still attached to the placenta.
The mechanism by which calcium regulates anther development remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between calcium distribution and anther development in oil tea (Camellia oleifera Abel.) by using the potassium antimonite technique. Before the onset of microsporogenesis, abundant minute calcium precipitates appeared on the plasma membranes of microspore mother cells. Meanwhile, numerous precipitates accumulated in the tapetal cells. After meiosis, calcium precipitates appeared in young microspores. During microspore development, calcium precipitates mainly appeared in the small vacuoles of the cytoplasm. At the late microspore stage, a large vacuole formed, and the number of precipitates in the microspore decreased. The number of precipitates in the tapetal cells decreased as microsporogenesis proceeded. Then, calcium precipitates in the bicellular pollen cytoplasm again increased in number. During bicellular pollen development, the number of calcium precipitates decreased. As the pollen grains matured, only a few calcium precipitates were evident in the pollen cytoplasm. The results of this study, which show the spatial and temporal features of calcium distribution during the anther development of C. oleifera, suggest that calcium distribution is related to anther development.
Petroleum-based spills on turfgrass often occur during lawn care maintenance. Damage caused by diesel and hydraulic fluid is particularly difficult to correct. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of combining mulching with remediation for reseeding spilled areas in lawns. Diesel and hydraulic fluid were applied to plots at a rate of 15 L·m−2. Immediately after the spill treatments, two liquid humic amendments and an activated flowable charcoal were applied at a volume rate of 8 L·m−2, respectively, with tap water/dishwashing detergent used as a control. Nitrate nitrogen was added to each remediation treatment to facilitate remediation. The spilled areas were reseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and then mulched with biochar, peat pellets, and paper pellets, respectively. At 6 weeks after seeding, humic amendment 1 and activated charcoal showed better turf quality than humic amendment 2. Peat pellet mulching presented better turf quality than other mulching methods. Reseeding perennial ryegrass and mulching with peat pellets after remediation with either humic amendment 1 or activated charcoal resulted in acceptable turf quality 6 weeks after diesel and hydraulic fluid spills. Therefore, this reestablishment method is recommended as a practical way to deal with diesel or hydraulic fluid spills in cool-season turfgrasses.
Nutrient deficiency leads to a high fruit abscission rate and low yields of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Soapberry), which is one of the most widely cultivated biodiesel feedstock forests in China. Exogenous sucrose can provide a solution to nutrient deficiency and fruit abscission leading to low yields; therefore, it was applied to whole trees at two stages, 20 days before blooming (DBB stage) and before fruit abscission [days before fruit abscission (DBFA) stage]. Six sucrose concentrations, 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 5%, and 7%, were sprayed three times using a completely randomized block design with five replications and six treatments. 13CO2 labeling experiments were performed after the three sprayings. The results indicated that the 3% treatment had the highest yield, reaching 15.9 kg/tree. During the DBB stage, the 3% treatment significantly increased the inflorescence fructose and glucose contents 1- to 1.2-times and resulted in the highest fruit gibberellic acid, leaf indole acetic acid (IAA), fruit IAA, and fruit zeatin contents; however, it decreased the inflorescence abscisic acid (ABA) from 16 μg/g to 4 μg/g. The 1.5% and 3% treatments significantly increased the carbohydrate content and decreased the fruit ABA content to 30% to 50% of the control level during the DBFA stage. High-concentration sugar treatment (>3%) increased the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents, which decreased the calcium and magnesium contents. The 13C-dispatching ability of the inflorescence was three-times greater than that of leaves under the high-concentration sugar treatment during the DBB stage. Supplying 1.5% sucrose nearly doubled the allocation capacity during the DBFA stage. The source-sink nutrient migration pathway showed that leaf and fruit sugars were directly correlated with phosphorus. Fruit fructose and glucose contents affected the leaf mineral element contents.
Deicing salts often are applied to sidewalks and roadways to enhance pedestrian and driving safety during freezing weather. For example, in eastern North Dakota, average annual snow days and amount are 29 days and 40 inches, respectively. This study was conducted in Fargo, ND, to investigate the population dynamics of turfgrass mixtures composed of kentucky bluegrass [KB (Poa pratensis)], creeping red fescue [RF (Festuca rubra)], and alkaligrass [ALK (Puccinellia sp.)] with the goal of optimizing turf quality by selecting seed ratios containing these species in home lawn mixtures and subject to frequent applications of deicing salts. A total of 21 mixtures were generated based on simplex-lattice design with KB, ALK, and RF contributing to 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of their respective full-seeding rate of 150, 150, and 300 lb/acre, respectively, after pure live seed (PLS) adjustment. The mixtures were tested at annual deicing salt rates of 0, 160, 320 lb/acre, which represent typical application. The results showed that the botanical component of the stands of grasses shifted over a 2-year period for all salt levels. Despite the good salinity tolerance of ALK reported elsewhere, it did not contribute to the improvement of turf quality in mixtures receiving deicing salts at 320 lb/acre per year. Therefore, ALK is not recommended for lawn, but mixing KB and RF in 48% and 52% of their respective full-seeding rates was recommended for areas adjacent to deicing salt applications.
Camellia oleifera, a major woody oil plant, has a low oil yield because of self-incompatibility. For commercial oil production, compatible pollen and optimal cross-pollination combinations are required. To evaluate the effects of pollination compatibility and pollen source on oil yield and quality, four C. oleifera cultivars—Huashuo (HS), Huajin (HJ), Huaxin (HX), and Xianglin XLC15 (XL)—were subjected to self-, cross-, and natural pollination. Pollen compatibility, oil yield, and quality indices were analyzed. There were no significant differences in pollen germination and tube growth between self- and cross-pollination. Following self-pollination, fertilization was unsuccessful, resulting in severe ovule dysplasia; cross-pollination decreased the ovule abortion rate. Pollen source significantly affected the fruit set, fruit traits, seed traits, and fatty acid content, implying xenia in C. oleifera. In cross-pollinated plants, HX pollen produced more seeds, and HJ pollen increased linoleic acid content relative to naturally pollinated plants. For the XL and HS combinations, linolenic acid contents were significantly higher than other pollination combinations. However, oleic acid content was not significantly affected by pollen source, in any of the cultivars. Cultivar HX was, therefore, the most effective pollen donor, and HS × HX was the optimal cross-pollination combination for improving oil yield and sustainability.
Camellia oleifera is an important plant species that produces edible oils. Understanding the double fertilization of this plant is critical for studies concerning crossbreeding, self-incompatibility, and the biological mechanisms underlying hybridization. We aimed to characterize pollen tube growth and double fertilization in C. oleifera. The female and male parent cultivars (Huashuo and Xianglin XLC15, respectively) were used for artificial pollination. Growth of the pollen tube in the style, ovary, and ovule from pollination to fertilization and the cytological characteristics of female and male gamete fusion during double fertilization were observed using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Numerous pollen grains germinated 2 to 4 hours after pollination. The pollen tubes entered the interspaces between the papillar cells, grew along the stylar canal, and aggregated at the one-third site of the style. They grew in the gradually narrowing stylar canal, entering the locule. The tubes turned 90° and entered the embryo sac through the micropyle; subsequently, they entered a degenerated synergid, where the spermatids were released. One sperm nucleus fused with the polar nucleus, forming the primary endosperm nucleus, whereas the other sperm fused with the egg, forming the zygote. The polar nucleus was fertilized earlier than the egg. Double fertilization of C. oleifera is characterized as pre-mitotic gametogony. The current results lay a theoretical foundation for studies concerning the crossbreeding and embryology of C. oleifera and provide fundamental data concerning the reproductive biology of the genus Camellia.