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  • Author or Editor: Young Kim x
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Sweet persimmon, `Fuyu', is the major cultivar for MA storage, but browning of blossom end part (BBEP) and darkening are occurring during storage and decrease fruit qualities in fresh fruit markets in Korea. The symptom of BBEP of fruit started to occur on the blossom end part and spread to the middle and stem end part. These fruits lose their marketable values. Calcium has very important role in cell membrane in physical and physiological. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soluble Ca treatments of fertigation (FG) and foliar application (FA) on soil properties, tree growth and fruit quality and on the occurrence of BBEP. Ca content was high in Ca FA and Ca + IBA FG compared to other treatments. This increase might affect the soil pH, and so pH followed the same pattern of Ca content in soil. In leaves and fruits, Ca content was much higher in Ca Ca FA and Ca + IBA, Ca FG, respectively. Ca content in fruit parts showed stem end part “middle part” blossom end part. In fruit quality, fruit firmness, soluble solid content and fruit weight did not show any tendency in treatments. The occurrence rate of BBEP was very low 14% in Ca FA and 20% in Ca FG than 50% in control. These results showed that Ca content in soil, leaves and fruits was increased by soil FG and FA and the increased Ca content in blossom end part have a negative relationship with BBEP in sweet persimmon.

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The hybrid origin of 23 rose (Rosa spp.) accessions was examined with three isozymes: acid phosphatase (E.C.3.1.3.2), malate dehydrogenase (E.C.1.1.1.37), and phosphoglucose isomerase (E.C.5.3.1.9). All three isozymes were useful for interspecific hybrid verification. This procedure was effective if the putative parents were known and differed in isozyme phenotype. To verify the origin of hybrid species or cultivars with hybrid origins, isozymes were useful but limited by the number of generations since the original hybridization and the number of accessions of the putative parental species assayed.

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To investigate the differences of anatomical structure of neck tissue between bent-neck and strong-neck flowers, scanning electron microscopy of neck tissue during senescence of cut rose flowers held in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) was observed. Lignins in xylem, phloem, and interfascicular cambium of neck were stained to red by phloroglucine. More lignin was formed in the phloem of neck in rose flowers held in preservative solution than deionized water. Neck strength of cut rose could be increased by increase of lignin content, and this would prevent bent-neck and extend vase life. Parenchyma cells in neck part of rose flowers held in deionized water had thinner cell wall and less starch grains at senescence than those of flowers held in preservative solution at day 7. These starch grains would be used as energy source of rose flowers and extend vase life. Globular crystals were observed in the inner part of cells and had shape of large thorny. These crystals were cumulated in cell walls, then would prevent the activity of cell wall decomposition or increase cell wall permeability.

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Rose (Rosa hybrida) cvs. Red Velvet, First Red, Sonia, and Saphir stems harvested at bud stage were kept in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) at 21°C under continuous light (1200 lux). Vase life of `First Red' and `Saphir' was much longer than those of `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' held in deionized water. Severe bent-neck was observed in `Red Velvet' flowers held in deionized water in 8 days after harvest. Rose flowers held in preservative solution resulted in extended vase life and inhibited senescence and bent-neck in four cultivars. Neck strength of `First Red' and `Saphir' rose flowers having no bent-neck and long vase life was stronger than `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' having frequent bent-neck and short vase life. Neck strength was also increased by preservative solution. Faster changes of water balance to minus value were detected in the rose flowers held in deionized water than those held in preservative solution. `Red Velvet' flowers having much absorption of water but more transpiration caused a fast change to a minus value in water balance and early bent-neck. Cell sap pH gradually increased in petal and stem of rose cultivars during senescence. Cell sap pH of flowers held in distilled water were higher than those held in preservative solution. Increased cell sap pH of rose flowers caused rapid change to blueing and yellowing of petals.

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Isozyme analysis has been used for cultivar identification, but little has been done with the genus Rosa. One hundred and sixty rose accessions (species, cultivars, and hybrids) were characterized for isozyme phenotypes using starch gel electrophoresis. Six enzyme systems were stained on three electrode buffer systems. ACP, MDH, and 6PGD were run on morpholine citrate (pH 6.1) and histidine (pH 5.7), PGI and PGM were run on histidine (pH 5.7) and lithium borate (pH 8.3), and SKDH was run on morpholine citrate (PH 6.1) and lithium borate (PH 8.3). The most variable isozymes were MDH and 6PGD. MDH and 6PGD revealed 10 and 9 bands, respectively. This study showed that isozyme variability exists in roses and can be useful in their classification into species groups.

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To study the effects of chitosan on the productivity and nutritional quality of soybean (Glycine max L.) sprouts, soybean seeds were soaked in solutions containing 1,000 ppm chitosan of low (<10 kDa), medium (50 to 100 kDa), or high (>1,000 kDa) molecular weight, and the respiration, growth, and vitamin C content of the sprouts were subsequently evaluated. Sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan exhibited a significant increase in respiration, 5%, within 1 day of treatment. Chitosan effectively increased the growth of the sprouts: sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan showed increases of 3%, 1%, 3%, 1%, and 12% in the total length, hypocotyl length, root length, hypocotyl thickness, and fresh weight, respectively, as compared to a control. The growth-improving effects of chitosan were proportional to the molecular weight of the molecule used in the treatment. Chitosan treatment did not result in any significant reduction in vitamin C content or postharvest chlorophyll formation, traits that determine the nutritional and marketing values of soybean sprouts. All these results suggest that soaking soybean seeds in a solution of chitosan, especially of high molecular weight, may effectively enhance the productivity of soybean sprouts without adverse effects on the nutritional and postharvest characteristics.

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Recently, the acreages Japanese apricot have been increased for being known of the medical functions. However, the increase of tree height, overgrowing trees and light deficiency at the bottom of canopy induced the poor fruit quality and higher labor charges. This study was conducted to assess the effects of training time, angle and length of water sprout on tree growth, the shoot-curbing, and the occurrence of new shoot for 2 years. Water sprouts were trained on 5, and 25 June, and 15 July with three varying angles of 30°, 45° and 60°, and cut at three lengths (50, 80, 110_) after harvest. Compared to control, the treatment on June 25 showed the highest values of 76%, 82% of internode and shoot length respectiely. In the treatment of training angle, shoot length was 71% in both 30° and 45° but heavily limited to 36% in 60° with comparing to control. The occurrence of shoots showed 18.1, 24.6, and 36.3 in treatment of 50, 80 and 110 cm, respectively, and in 80 cm, the number of shoot with diameter more than 0.5 mm, which is suitable for bearing mother branch, was higher. The best result was obtained in method of branch training with 45° and heading-back 80 cm at height on 15 June for the renewal of lateral branch.

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A cohort of sixth grade students at two newly constructed elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea, performed a self-assessment of ocular discomfort symptoms in association with indoor air quality (IAQ) by indoor plant intervention from early June to mid-Oct. 2011. Indoor plant intervention made little difference in air temperature and relative humidity, but stabilized the increasing levels of carbon dioxide. The indoor concentrations of formaldehyde and ethylbenzene showed little difference, but those of toluene and xylene showed a decreasing trend in classrooms with indoor plants. The participants in classrooms without indoor plants exhibited an increase in ocular discomfort symptoms at School A and a decrease in symptoms at School B; those in classrooms with indoor plants demonstrated a decrease in frequency at both schools. The variation of symptom severity did not follow a clear trend. Participants assessed their symptom severity of ocular discomfort with four options from three points for frequent occurrence to zero points for no occurrence. Among participants in classrooms without indoor plants, symptom severity significantly worsened at both schools as the scores increased from 1.96 to 2.17 at School A and from 2.27 to 2.34 at School B; among those in classrooms with indoor plants, symptom severity significantly lessened at School A and slightly worsened at School B as the scores decreased from 2.33 to 1.98 at School A and increased from 2.35 to 2.42 at School B. After spending the experimental duration in classrooms without indoor plants at both schools, 34.8% of participants at School A and 33.3% of participants at School B perceived their symptom severity as having increased. At Schools A and B, indoor plants decreased the frequency of participants experiencing an increase of symptom severity by 13.0% and 9.7%, and increased the frequency of participants reporting decrease of symptom severity by 34.8% and 22.6%.

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To maintain appropriate tree shapes for Asian pear trees, multi-leader system would be more suitable, which could be obtained from the proper training systems. Controlling apical dominance should be the major factor for tree shape management and this might be modified by branch bending or pruning methods. When the tree shape was managed with Alternate Fan System, too narrower branch angle depressed flower bud formation because of the vigorous shoot growth but too wider angle also decreased that formation because of the numerous water sprouts. The tree with 75 degrees of internally deviated angle performed superior result in fruiting process. Additionally, heading-back pruning could be another for water sprout emerging. For that reason, the severer heading-back pruning stimulated the more water sprout emerging. The proper pruning method could be obtained by considering the relation between main stem width and sum of remained branch width.

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The nitrogen contents of leaves were the same on the first measurement of 9 May 2003 and the date was immediately prior date to application of different training angles to the one-year-old shoots grown during the previous year. However, the nitrogen content began to be different according to training angles as early as 8 days after the training of one-year-old branches. The 90° branch showed higher nitrogen content on the eighth date from the training application against 120° or non-trained slanting branch. The 90° branch continuously demonstrated larger nitrogen contents on 23 May and 2 June against non-trained branch. While, the 120° branch began to show the tendency of larger nitrogen content compared with slanting branches from 23rd May which was 2 weeks from training, and this difference continued up to 2 June 2003. The chlorophyll (SPAD value) of the leaves trained to 120° and 90° were the same at the time of initial training was applied on 9t May 2003, but a significant reduction of the chlorophyll (SPAD value) was found as early as eighth date from the first training date and this difference was reduced to be the same on the date of 2 weeks after the initial training date, but the chlorophyll (SPAD value) became different again on 2 June 2003. Correlations between chlorophyll contents (SPAD value) and photosynthetic rates influenced by training angles were highly positive in 90° training and in 120-degree training than non-training. Additionally, the correlations between the specific leaf weight and chlorophyll contents (SPAD value) were highly positive in 120° training than in 90° training or non-training.

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