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- Author or Editor: Youbin Zheng x
Salicornia bigelovii is a halophyte that is capable of growing under high salinity. To evaluate the potential of producing S. bigelovii hydroponically as a vegetable at moderate NaCl concentrations, plants were grown in nutrient solutions with 6, 8, and 10 mm NaCl, and with 200 mm NaCl as a control. Results showed that plants had a reduced main stem length, canopy width, stem diameter, and root system length in 6 to 10 mm NaCl compared with those in 200 mm. Also, fresh weight increase, fresh and dry weights of individual plants, marketable yield, and water use efficiency of the plants grown in solutions with 6 to 10 mm NaCl were significantly lower than those grown in 200 mm. Associated with the reduced growth attributes, remarkable decreases in sodium uptake by the plants were also obtained in 6 to 10 vs. 200 mm NaCl. The results suggest that S. bigelovii is not a good candidate for hydroponic production as a vegetable at moderate NaCl salinity resulting from reduced growth attributes, which are possibly associated with decreased sodium uptake.
Region-specific trials examining optimum controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) rates for the Canadian climate are limited. This study was conducted to determine an optimum range of CRF application rates and the effect of the application rate on growth, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) losses of six economically important container-grown woody ornamental shrubs using typical production practices at a southwestern Ontario nursery. Salix purpurea ‘Nana’, Weigela florida ‘Alexandra’, Cornus sericea ‘Cardinal’, Hydrangea paniculata ‘Bombshell’, Hibiscus syriacus ‘Ardens’, and Spiraea japonica ‘Magic Carpet’ were potted in 1-gal pots and fertilized with Polyon® 16N-2.6P-10K (5–6 month longevity) incorporated at rates of 0.8, 1.2, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.5 kg·m−3 N in 2012. The experiment was repeated for the 2013 growing season with rates of CRF incorporated at 0.05, 0.35, 0.65, 0.95, and 1.25 kg·m−3 N. Plant performance (i.e., growth index) and leachate electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were evaluated once every 3 to 4 weeks during the respective growing seasons. The amount of N and P lost to the environment was determined for the 2012 growing season. The interaction between nutrient supply rate and target species affected most response variables. Although higher levels of fertilization produced larger plants and had the potential to decrease production time, increased losses of N and P and higher EC leachate values occurred. Results of this study indicate that an acceptable range of CRF application rates can be used for each species depending on the production goals, i.e., decreased production time, maximum growth, or decreased nutrient leachate. Overall, the highest acceptable CRF rates within the optimal range were: 1.25 kg·m−3 N for Spiraea; 1.7 kg·m−3 N for Hydrangea; 2.1 kg·m−3 N for Cornus; and 2.5 kg·m−3 N for Weigela, Salix, and Hibiscus. The lowest acceptable rates within the optimal range were: 0.35 kg·m−3 N for Hibiscus; 0.65 kg·m−3 N for Cornus, Weigela, Salix, and Spiraea; and 0.80 kg·m−3 N for Hydrangea.
Suaeda glauca is an annual halophyte growing in saline–alkali environment in North China. To evaluate the potential of producing S. glauca as a vegetable at moderate NaCl concentrations, plants were grown in nutrient solutions with 6, 8, and 10 mm NaCl, and with 200 mm NaCl as a control. Results showed that main stem length, true leaf number, side branch number, and canopy width of plants in 6–10 mm NaCl were not significantly different from those in 200 mm. Also, no significant differences in fresh and dry weights of individual plants, marketable yield, and water use efficiency of the plants were observed between 6–10 and 200 mm NaCl treatments. Despite remarkable decreases in sodium uptake, similar water consumptions by the plants were obtained in 6–10 vs. 200 mm NaCl. The results suggest that S. glauca is a potential candidate for hydroponic production as a vegetable at moderate NaCl salinity, since growth attributes and biomass accumulation were not reduced when grown at lower salinity levels, despite with decreased sodium uptake.
To evaluate the potential of producing purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) as a sodium (Na)-removing vegetable hydroponically at moderate NaCl salinity, two cultivars (Green and Golden) were grown in solutions with added 0, 6, 8, and 10 mm NaCl (the actual Na+ concentrations ≈2, 8, 10, and 12 mm, respectively). At harvest, 26 days after transplanting, apparent growth and biomass accumulation were not negatively affected by 6 to 10 mm added NaCl compared with 0 mm added NaCl. However, with the increase of added NaCl concentration from 0 to 6 to 10 mm, the sodium removal showed a 1- to 3-fold increase up to 0.26 to 0.41 mmol/plant, and 225.7 to 300.2 mmol·kg−1 dry weight (DW) or 0.90 to 1.32 mmol·L−1 H2O, respectively. ‘Green’ produced greater biomass and removed more sodium per plant than ‘Golden’. ‘Golden’ had more of a dwarfed and compact canopy than ‘Green’. Sodium removal rate (mmol/plant/day) was the highest during the first 7 days after transplanting, but the fresh weight increase rate (g/plant/day) increased gradually as growth progressed. Results suggest that it is possible to hydroponically produce purslane in nutrient solutions with 8 to 12 mm Na+. Despite the high sodium-removal capability, purslane cannot be used to reduce Na+ concentrations in NaCl-rich hydroponic solutions. The biomass yield and the sodium removal of individual plants were affected by different cultivars and time after transplanting.
In vitro testing was conducted to evaluate the inhibition potential of three compost teas (pine bark, manure, and vermicasting), Root Rescue Landscape Powder® (a mix of mycorrhizae and other beneficial microbes), waste diatomaceous earth (DE; from beer brewing), and a greenhouse nutrient solution, which had been reused for 20 years on six plant pathogens: Fusarium foetens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Phytophthora cryptogea, Pythium intermedium, and P. ultimum. The test materials showed in vitro inhibition on most of the test pathogens. Pine bark tea suppressed growth of all six pathogens, and inhibition exceeded 50% after 10 days of coincubation. Vermicasting tea showed over 40% inhibition against S. sclerotiorum and F. foetens; manure tea showed 42% inhibition against F. foetens; DE showed 40% inhibition against F. foetens, S. sclerotiorum, and R. solani; whereas reused greenhouse nutrient solution showed 56.7% inhibition against R. solani and 43.4% inhibition against F. foetens; Root Rescue showed 66% inhibition against P. intermedium. The results suggest that the six test materials have potential in the control of these soil- and water-borne pathogens in plant production system.
The majority of commercial Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) cultivators use a 12.0-hour uninterrupted dark period to induce flowering; however, scientific information to prove this is the optimal dark period for all genotypes is lacking. Knowing genotype-specific photoperiods may help to promote growth by providing the optimal photoperiod for photosynthesis. To determine whether the floral initiation of cannabis explants respond to varied photoperiods in vitro, explants were grown under one of six photoperiod treatments: 12.0, 13.2, 13.8, 14.4, 15.0, and 16.0 hours per day for 4 weeks. The percentage of flowering explants was highest under 12.0- and 13.2-hour treatments. There were no treatment effects on the fresh weight, final height, and growth index. Based on the results, it is recommended that an uninterrupted dark period of at least 10.8 hours (i.e., 13.2-hour photoperiod) be used to induce flowering for the ‘802’ genotype. In vitro flowering could provide a unique and high-throughput approach to study floral/seed development and secondary metabolism in cannabis under highly controlled conditions. Further research should determine if this response is the same on the whole-plant level.
The objectives of the current study were to 1) determine the best topdressed controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) application rates for quality and growth of two nursery crops under temperate climate outdoor nursery production conditions in the Niagara region, Ontario, Canada, and 2) evaluate the nutrient status of the growing substrate following topdressing of two CRF types during the growing season. Fall-transplanted Goldmound spirea (Spiraea ×bumalda ‘Goldmound’) and Wine & Roses® weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. ‘Alexandra’] were grown in 2-gal (7.56 L) containers and topdressed on 7 May 2015 with Osmocote Plus 15N–3.9P–9.9K, 5–6 month CRF or Plantacote 14N–3.9P–12.5K, 6 month Homogeneous NPK with Micros. CRF was applied at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g nitrogen (N)/pot for both species. The best plants at the end of the growing season (i.e., 23 Sept. 2015) were spirea at 3.0–4.5 and 3.0–6.0 g N/pot, and weigela at 3.0–4.5 and 6.0 g N/pot, with Osmocote and Plantacote, respectively. At CRF rates above these rates, the majority of plants showed no increase in growth or quality attributes. All weigela plants, despite CRF application rate, showed K deficiency symptoms during the study. Using marketable-size criteria and plant growth data over time, estimates of production timing are presented for fall-transplanted, spring-topdressed weigela and spirea. These estimates may assist growers in choosing CRF application rates to meet time-sensitive production goals. Early in the growing season, NO3-N and P concentrations in the growing substrate were highest at CRF rates ≥4.5 and ≥6.0 g N/pot, respectively, and P continued to be high in August and September at 9.0 g N/pot. NH3-N and K concentrations at all CRF application rates were greater early in the growing season and decreased over time. At high CRF rates toward the end of the growing season, concentrations of NO3-N, NH3-N, and P once again increased. Considering crop-specific CRF application rates and understanding changes in growing substrate nutrient status during the growing season may help nursery growers prevent negative environmental impacts from over-fertilizing.
Controlled application of drought can increase secondary metabolite concentrations in some essential oil-producing crops. To evaluate the effects of drought on cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) inflorescence dry weight and cannabinoid content, drought stress was applied to container-grown cannabis plants through gradual growing substrate drying under controlled environment. Fertigation was withheld during week 7 in the flowering stage until midday plant water potential (WP) was approximately −1.5 MPa (drought stress threshold). This occurred after 11 days without fertigation. A well-irrigated control was used for comparison. Leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), plant WP, wilting (leaf angle), and volumetric moisture content (VMC) were monitored throughout the drying period until the day after the drought group was fertigated. At the drought stress threshold, Pn was 42% lower and plant WP was 50% lower in the drought group than the control. Upon harvest, drought-stressed plants had increased concentrations of major cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) by 12% and 13%, respectively, compared with the control. Further, yield per unit growing area of THCA was 43% higher than the control, CBDA yield was 47% higher, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) yield was 50% higher, and cannabidiol (CBD) yield was 67% higher. Controlled drought stress may therefore be an effective horticultural management technique to maximize both inflorescence dry weight and cannabinoid yield in cannabis, although results may differ by cannabis cultivar or chemotype.
An elongated stem has beneficial effects on microgreen production. Previous studies indicate that under 24-hour light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, monochromatic blue light, compared with red light, can promote plant elongation for some species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether shortened photoperiod can change blue vs. red light effects on elongation growth. The growth and morphology traits of arugula (Brassica eruca, ‘Rocket’), cabbage (Brassica oleracea, unknown variety name), mustard (Brassica juncea, ‘Ruby Streaks’), and kale (Brassica napus, ‘Red Russian’) seedlings were compared during the stage from seeding to cotyledon unfolding under two light quality × two photoperiod treatments: 1) R, monochromatic red light (665 nm) and 2) B, monochromatic blue light (440 nm) using continuous (24-hour light/0-hour dark) or periodic (16-hour light/8-hour dark) LED lighting. A photosynthetic photon flux density of ≈100 μmol·m−2·s−1 and an air temperature of ≈22 °C was used for the preceding treatments. After 7 to 8 days of lighting treatment, regardless of photoperiod, B promoted elongation growth compared with R, as demonstrated by a greater stem extension rate, hypocotyl length, or petiole length in the tested microgreen species, except for mustard. The promotion effects on elongation were greater under 24- vs. 16-hour lighting in many cases. Among the tested species, mustard showed the lowest sensitivity in elongation response to B vs. R, which was independent of photoperiod. This suggests that the blue-light-promoted elongation is not specifically from 24-hour lighting, despite the varying promotion degree under different photoperiods or for different species. The elongation growth promoted by blue LED light under a photoperiod of either 24 hours or 16 hours can potentially benefit indoor production of microgreens.
With the increasing popularity of green roofs, efficient green roof plant production is required to adequately supply the industry. Applying fertilizer at an appropriate rate can provide sufficient plant nutrition for efficient plant growth without excess nutrient leaching into the environment. This study compared rates of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) applied to green roof modules at the plant production stage to determine an optimum CRF rate for encouraging plant growth and vegetative coverage while minimizing the amount and concentration of leached nutrients. After sedum cuttings were rooted in green roof modules on 29 Aug. 2011, CRF was applied at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 g·m−2 nitrogen (N) and modules were compared with an unfertilized control. Plant growth, vegetative coverage, and overall appearance requirements were met after fertilization at 20 g·m−2 N. Modules fertilized at less than 20 g·m−2 N did not reach the target proportion coverage during the study. When fertilized at 20 g·m−2 N, green roof modules reached the target proportion coverage after 240 days of growth. Differences in leachate volumes were observed among treatments 35 days after fertilization and fertilization at 20 g·m−2 N minimized leaching of most nutrients. Therefore, with the green roof module system used in this study, an application of 20 g·m−2 N for green roof module or sedum cutting production is an optimum CRF rate for plant growth and vegetative coverage while minimizing negative environmental impacts.