Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of both the psyllid and bacterium. We tested M. paniculata and Citrus sinensis grown together in the same field for their titer of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’. We found the bacterium in both M. paniculata and C. sinensis, but the titer was four orders of magnitude lower in M. paniculata. We also assayed D. citri from laboratory colonies reared on either ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected M. paniculata or infected Citrus spp. Psyllids reared on infected M. paniculata also carried bacterial titers five orders of magnitude lower than psyllids reared on infected Citrus spp. These observations imply resistance to huanglongbing in M. paniculata.
Abigail J. Walter, YongPing Duan and David G. Hall
Sheng Li, Feng Wu, Yongping Duan, Ariel Singerman and Zhengfei Guan
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening, is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide and is threatening the sustainability of the industry in major citrus-growing regions. Various treatments have been proposed in the literature to manage the disease. We review such literature and conduct an economic analysis based on the reported treatment effects on fruit yield and quality to identify cost-effective management strategies. Our results suggest that, among the treatments we reviewed, broad-spectrum insecticides provide the only cost-effective strategy for mitigating the impact of the disease. Our findings and discussion should help growers, policymakers, and other stakeholders make informed decisions in the search for effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly treatments and policies against HLB.
Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, Matthew L. Richardson, David G. Hall, Yongping Duan and Richard F. Lee
Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), a commercially important disease in Florida citrus as well as in many other regions. In this study we evaluated occurrence of foliar lesions from ACC on progenies of 94 seed-source genotypes (hereafter called “parent genotypes”) of Citrus and Citrus relatives in the field in east–central Florida to identify the relative susceptibility to ACC. Eight seedlings per parent genotype were planted in a randomized complete block planting, but the number of plants assessed in some genotype groups was reduced by mortality at some or all sampling dates. Plants experienced ambient exposure to high Xcc inoculum pressure and plants were assessed in Sept. 2010, July 2011, Oct. 2011, May 2012, and Sept. 2012. The incidence and severity of ACC lesions were assessed and evaluated using non-parametric analyses to compare progeny from the 94 parent genotypes. Progeny of 14 parent genotypes did not exhibit ACC symptoms at any date. All were in genera other than Citrus with only Microcitrus and Eremocitrus being cross-compatible with Citrus. The kumquat hybrid C. halimii, two accessions of C. reticulata, C. nobilis, and C. sunki were the only Citrus species in the group that had a low severity (percent total leaf area showing symptoms) on each date of assessment. The aforementioned accessions had an average incidence and severity of ACC lesions of less than 4% in 2011 and 2012, but 26% to 38% in 2010 when no chemical control for ACC was applied in the adjoining citrus groves at our field site. Fourteen of the 16 progeny of C. reticulata and related parent genotypes were in the group with the lowest incidence and severity of ACC on two or more assessment dates. However, for analysis of only the most symptomatic leaves on each plant, 10 C. reticulata parent genotype progenies were in the most resistant category on the Sept. 2012 assessment despite having a low incidence and severity of ACC symptoms overall. Progeny of Poncirus and its hybrids as well as those of C. maxima, C. limon, and related species were the most severely diseased at all assessment dates. There were few instances in which progeny of different accessions of the same species had markedly different responses to ACC: progeny of C. reticulata ‘Fremont’ displayed more severe ACC compared with several other C. reticulata groups and C. aurantium ‘Zhuluan’ displayed much lower incidence and severity of ACC compared with several other accessions designated C. aurantium. Information on ACC susceptibility in diverse Citrus and Citrus relatives may prove useful for breeding programs aimed at reducing ACC susceptibility and will be of value to researchers interested in mechanisms of ACC resistance and susceptibility.