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  • Author or Editor: Ying Xu x
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Abstract

Staminate flowers were induced in a gynoecious line (MSU 394G) and the pistillate phase was delayed in a monoecious cultivar (‘Sumter’) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) with 2 phthalimide derivatives, 1-(3-chlorophthalimido)-cyclohexanecarboxamide and 1-(1-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximido)-cyclohexanecarboxamide. Single and multiple foliar sprays at 1000 mg liter−1 during expansion of the first true leaf (5–7 cm in width) delayed flowering as indexed by days from seeding to anthesis and the node of the first pistillate flower in monoecious ‘Sumter’. Repeat applications induced staminate flowers in gynoecious MSU 394G and staminate flower production continued over a wide range of nodes. Marked differences in response to the phthalimides appeared to be related to the season in which the experiments were performed. The greatest number of staminate flowers was induced when the gynoecious plants were exposed to an 8-hour photoperiod early in plant development and then grown under a 14-hour photoperiod.

Open Access

Abstract

The phthalimide 1-(1-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximido)-cyclohexanecarboxamide delayed formation of pistillate flowers in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Sumter). A saturating dose completely inhibited ethylene-enhanced pistillate flower formation in respect to number of nodes preceding the first pistillate flower and number of pistillate flowers produced per plant.

Open Access

‘Akizuki’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is a dominant Asian pear cultivar with gradually increasing cultivation area in Shandong province. However, this cultivar is found susceptible to cork spot disorder in recent years. In this study, we explored the physiological-biochemical mechanism of cork spot disorder in pear fruit, and investigated the effectiveness of spraying calcium (Ca), boron (B) solution or prohexadione calcium (P-Ca) on cork spot incidence. Cork spotted fruit had the characteristics of significantly larger fruit size with shorter fruit pedicels. Compared with normal fruit, cork spotted fruit had lower content of total soluble solids, soluble and reducing sugar, and vitamin C. In addition, cork spotted fruit accumulated much higher levels of N and Mg, and lower levels of K and P. However, Ca deficiency was not observed in cork spotted fruit, on the contrary, we determined high concentrations of Ca and free Ca2+ in disordered fruit. At the same time, the ratios of K/Ca, Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg)/Ca were significantly lower in cork spotted fruit as compared with normal fruit. Among all treatments, spraying with 3500 times dilution of P-Ca at 15-day intervals from 30 to 90 days after full bloom showed promise for reducing cork spot incidence in ‘Akizuki’ pear without affecting fruit quality attributes. This research herein reveals the physiological-biochemical characteristic of cork spot disorder, and implicates P-Ca as a potential tool to reduce cork spot incidence in Asian pear cultivar Akizuki.

Free access

The banana, a typical climacteric fruit, undergoes a postharvest ripening process followed by a burst in ethylene production that signals the beginning of the climacteric period. Postharvest ripening plays an important role in improving the quality of the fruit as well as limiting its shelf life. To investigate the role of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in climacteric ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening in postharvest banana, a GAD gene was isolated from banana, designated MuGAD. Coincidently with climacteric ethylene production, MuGAD expression as well as the expression of the genes encoding the Musa 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (MaACS1) and Musa 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (MaACO1) greatly increased during natural ripening and in ethylene-treated banana. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis, ripening progress, and MuGAD, MaACS1, and MaACO1 expression were enhanced by exogenous ethylene application and inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Taken together, our results suggested that MuGAD is involved in the fruit ripening process in postharvest banana.

Free access

Abstract

Parthenocarpic fruit development was induced in ‘Montmorency’ sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) with AC 94377. The biological activity of AC 94377 was increased significantly by NAA. The development (Stages I, II, III, “June drop”, ripening) of parthenocarpic fruit was similar to that of open pollinated controls except for smaller fruit size. Ovules enlarged during Stage I in AC 94377-induced parthenocarpic fruit, but lacked embryos; all ovules aborted during Stage II or III of fruit development. The primary action of NAA appeared to reduce abscission of AC 94377-treated ovaries with no significant effect on fruit size. Chemical names used: 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (6-BA); 1-(3-chlorophthalimido)-cy-clohexanecarboximide (AC 94377); polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Atlox BI).

Open Access

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were used to assess genetic diversity among 30 genotypes of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] representing a broad genetic base, including breeding lines and commercial germplasm. Eight AFLP primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations were polymophic. The polymorphism was 13.0% to 31.9% within the 28 cultivars examined, and 45.3% to 64.2% among all the genotypes. Each genotype could be successfully distinguished based on AFLP scoring. Cluster grouping of accessions based on the AFLP analysis was consistent with that from classification by pedigrees and ecotypes.

Free access