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  • Author or Editor: Ying Sun x
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Fritillaria crassicaulis S. C. Chen is a precious traditional Chinese medicine, but the number of populations has declined rapidly due to overexploitation. An artificial rapid propagation system was established to screen the suitable plant regeneration method and to explore the efficient propagation method, useful for propagation technology or for further research and development of F. crassicaulis. This study selected scale as the experimental material, set Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium as the basic medium, and optimized the types and proportions of plant growth regulator (PGR) suitable for callus induction, bulblet differentiation and proliferation, and plant regeneration by means of single-factor, full-factorial, and L9 (3)4 orthogonal experiments. Results demonstrate that in the experiment with single exogenous PGR, the high concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) was significantly better than kinetin (KT) to induce bulblets, 2, 4-dichloroacetic acid (2, 4-D) had a significant effect on callus induction, and a higher concentration of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was beneficial to the occurrence and growth of bulbs, but the rooting effect promoted by indole butyric acid (IBA) was preferable to that by NAA. In MS medium with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D and 1.5 mg/L 6-BA, a large number of yellowish-green compact calli could be induced from the scales with the calli induction frequency at 93.3%, and about 11.4% materials directly differentiated bulblets. In the subsequent orthogonal experiment, after the scales were cultured in MS medium with 2.0 mg/L 6-BA, 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, and 0.1 mg/L NAA for 20 days, the small yellow and white globular protuberances formed near the incision, but no callus appeared, and many protuberances appeared on the surface of the scales. After 60 days, the protuberances at the incision developed into bulblets directly, while protuberances on the surface of the scales developed into few bulblets but crowded “leaf spines,” which gradually died and disappeared in the later culture; the proliferation coefficient was ∼6.30 then. Experimental results indicate that the optimal rooting medium for bulblets was 1/2MS medium with 2.0 mg/L IBA and 1.0 mg/L activated carbon (AC), with the rooting rate at 95.6%. This study identifies bulblet regeneration of F. crassicaulis, and an efficient direct organogenesis method was established: regenerated bulblets could be induced from scales in one step, so a large number of regenerated plants with the same genotype could be obtained in a short time.

Open Access

Information was obtained concerning appropriate bud harvest time and nitrogen source to be used in the tissue culture of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir] apical buds from 2-year-old seedlings. April was the preferred time to harvest buds for culture, as summer buds had a high contamination frequency, and fall and winter buds did not develop well. Shoot elongation of buds collected in April (1.6 cm) was more than twice that of buds collected in February (0.7 cm) after 100 days in culture; during the same period, shoot fresh mass increased 5-fold (0.21 g in April, 0.04 g in February). Inclusion of a nitrate source reduced the frequency of bud browning, and glutamine was superior to ammonium as a source of reduced nitrogen. Litvay's basal medium containing 10 mm glutamine and 10 mm nitrate was the best nitrogen source combination tested when considering bud browning frequency and shoot fresh mass and length after 100 days in culture.

Free access

Floral scents emitted from eight cultivars of cut lily flowers (Lilium) were analyzed. Floral volatiles were collected by headspace adsorption on sorbent tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a direct thermal desorption. Fifty volatile compounds were identified. Nine compounds were detected in all lilies, whereas 20 compounds were detected in all scented lilies. The results revealed that non-scented lilies emitted trace amounts of volatile compounds, whereas scented lilies emitted high levels of volatile compounds. Monoterpenoids and benzenoids were the dominant compound classes of volatiles emitted from scented lilies. Myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, linalool, methyl benzoate, and ethyl benzoate were the major compounds of the aroma of scented lilies; 1,8-cineole was also a major compound in the two scented oriental × trumpet hybrid lilies. Scent emissions occurred in a circadian rhythm with higher levels of volatiles emitted during the night. Lilium ‘Siberia’ was selected as a model to investigate the source of the emissions. GC/MS analysis of four flower parts and neutral red staining revealed that tepals were the source of floral scent.

Free access

In this study, we present the molecular characterization of 61 Chinese grape landraces and 33 foreign cultivars by using nine microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 115 distinct alleles were amplified, and the average allele number was 12.78. The average observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.797 and 0.839, respectively. The effective allele numbers ranged from 5.011 to 8.575. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.816. Eighty distinct genotypes were detected, and new synonyms and homonyms were found. The clustering dendrogram indicated that 94 Vitis materials could be divided into five major groups, and the cluster analysis showed that part of the Chinese grape landraces had a close relationship with the foreign cultivars. Assessment of the true cultivar identity, and the identification of synonyms and homonyms will be a contribution to improve the grape germplasm management and protect breeders’ intellectual rights.

Free access

A greenhouse field experiment involving tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was performed using different nitrogen (N) management regimes: sole application of differing rates of chemical N fertilizer (SC) (SC treatments: N0, N1, N2, and N3) and combined application of manure and chemical N fertilizer (MC) (MC treatments: MN0, MN1, MN2, and MN3). These were used to understand the relationship between comprehensive fruit composition, yield, and N fractions (soil mineral N; soil soluble organic N; soil microbial biomass N, and soil fixed ammonium) under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the MC treatments significantly increased vitamin C and soluble sugar content compared with SC treatments. In addition, the MN2 treatment produced a high yield and had a positive effect on fruit composition. The N3 (563 kg N/ha) and MN3 (796 kg N/ha) treatments resulted in a high loss of N below the root zone (0–30 cm), consequently reducing N use efficiency. Soil mineral N, soil soluble organic N, and soil fixed ammonium tended to be higher during the first fruiting period, whereas soil microbial biomass N tended to be higher during the second fruiting period. MC treatments significantly increased the N fraction in the 0- to 30-cm soil layer; N fractions tended to be higher with the MN2 treatment. According to an optimum regression equation, soil fixed ammonium during the first fruiting period and soil microbial biomass N during the second fruiting period had a more significant influence on tomato yield and fruit composition. Overall, application MC at an appropriate rate (MN2: 608 kg N/ha) is a promising approach to achieving high yields and optimum taste, and it offers a more sustainable fertilizer management strategy compared with chemical N fertilization.

Free access

Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foëx), an important wild grape species in South China, has gained attention because of its health-promoting effects and use in the wine industry. Fruit quality plays an important role in determining the quality of wine; however, a suitable evaluation system to monitor its fruit quality has not been established. The fruit quality characteristics (phenolics and aromas) of 15 spine grapes grown in China were evaluated using a combination of principal component and cluster analyses. The total sugar, organic acid, and phenolic content ranged from 81.80 to 154.89 mg·g−1, 8.02 to 15.48 mg·g−1, and 5.58 to 20.12 mg·g−1, respectively. The comprehensive assessment by principal component analysis revealed that ‘Red xiangzhenzhu’ had the highest quality and ‘Hongjiangci10’ and ‘Ziluolan’ the lowest quality. Cluster analysis using k-means grouped the cultivars into three clusters based on their quality: Cluster 1 grouped those with inferior quality (‘Hongjiangci09’, ‘Hongjiangci10’, ‘Hongjiangci11’, and ‘Hongjiangci07’, etc.), Cluster2 grouped those with average quality (‘Ciputao3#,’ ‘Ziluolan’, and ‘Xiangci4#’), and Cluster3 grouped those with superior quality (‘Red xiangzhenzhu’ and ‘Green xiangzhenzhu’). A combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis provides a comprehensive and objective evaluation system for determining the quality of grape cultivars. This study is important for the systematic evaluation and utilization of spine grape resources.

Open Access

Aspergillus niger is a common pathogenic fungus causing postharvest rot of fruit and vegetable, whereas the knowledge on virulence factors is very limited. Superoxide dismutase [SOD (EC 1.15.1.10)] is an important metal enzyme in fungal defense against oxidative damage. Thus, we try to study whether Cu/Zn-SOD is a virulence factor in A. niger. Cu/Zn-SOD encoding gene sodC was deleted in A. niger [MA70.15 (wild type)] by homologous recombination. The deletion of sodC led to decreased SOD activity in A. niger, suggesting that sodC did contribute to full enzyme activity. ΔsodC strain showed normal mycelia growth and sporulation compared with wild type. However, sodC deletion markedly increased the cell’s sensitivity to intracellular superoxide anion generator menadione. Besides, spore germination under menadione and H2O2 stresses were significantly retarded in ΔsodC mutant compared with wild type. Further results showed that sodC deletion induced higher superoxide anion production and higher content of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with wild type, supporting the role of SOD in metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, ΔsodC mutant had a reduced virulence on chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) as lesion development by ΔsodC was significantly less than wild type. The determination of superoxide anion, H2O2, and MDA in A. niger-infected pear showed that chinese white pear infected with ΔsodC accumulated less superoxide anion, H2O2, and MDA compared with that of wild type A. niger, implying that ΔsodC induced an attenuated response in chinese white pear during fruit–pathogen interaction. Our results indicate that sodC gene contributes to the full virulence of A. niger during infection on fruit. Aspergillus niger is one of the most common species found in fungal communities. It is an important fermentation industrial strain and is also known to cause the most severe symptoms in fruit during long-term storage (). Meanwhile, plants activate their signaling pathways to trigger defense responses to limit pathogen expansion. One of the earliest host responses after pathogen attack is oxidative burst, during which large quantities of ROS are generated by different host enzyme systems, such as glucose oxidase (). ROS such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, hydroxyl (OH), and H2O2 are released to hinder the advance of pathogens (). ROS can react with and damage cellular molecules, such as DNA, protein, and lipids, which will limit fungal propagation in the host plant ().

Free access

In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 48 wild Vitis davidii accessions. A total of 78 distinct alleles were amplified by 11 SSR primers, and the average allele number was 8.8. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) values were 0.785 and 0.814, respectively. The effective allele numbers ranged from 3.92 to 9.61. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.798. Twelve of 169 SRAP primer combinations were selected for SRAP analysis. A total of 188 bands were produced, and the average was 15.7 bands per primer combination; the average percentage of polymorphic bands was 84.0%. The average PIC was 0.76. The results of the clustering analysis based on SSR markers showed that the 48 wild V. davidii accessions could be classified into five main clusters and had a genetic similarity coefficient level of 0.68. The dendrogram obtained from the SRAP data showed that 48 wild V. davidii accessions could be classified into five main clusters and had a genetic similarity coefficient of 0.72. SSR and SRAP markers differentiated all accessions studied including those with a similar pedigree. We speculated on the origin of Ciputao 0941♀, Ciputao 0940♂, and Fu’an-ci-01 using SSR markers and used both SSR and SRAP markers to resolve homonymy. The result will be valuable for further management and protection of V. davidii germplasm resources.

Free access