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Masahiko Yamada, Akihiko Sato, and Yasuo Ukai

Environmental variance components were estimated for calyx-end fruit cracking in pollination-constant and nonastringent cultivars and selections of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). The cracking value of a tree in a cultivar or selection (genotype) (X) was evaluated as the number of fruit that cracked divided by the total number (25) of fruit evaluated from each tree. Because the mean value of X was correlated with the variance of X, analyses of variance were performed using its square root value. The variance associated with genotyp× year interaction was the largest of environmental variance components. The variances associated among years and among trees within genotypes were very small. The mean percentage of cracked fruit in evaluation for 10 years was 3% for `Fuyu', 11% for `Matsumotowase-Fuyu', and 12% for `Izu'. On the basis of the environmental variance components obtained, it is proposed that all offspring genotypes exhibiting a phenotypic cracking incidence of less than 20% and 11% should be selected in single-year and three-year evaluations, respectively, when those genotypes are evaluated using 25 fruits from a single tree, in order to successfully select all genotypes with an genotypic incidence of less than 3%.