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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

The genus Opuntia includes a number of species which produce nutritious fruits and edible young joints, moreover, they are used as forage crop and for medicinal purposes. A procedure for flower and plant formation is described. Explants were excised from young flower receptacle and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.9, 1.8, 4.5, or 9 uM thidiazuron and 0.5 uM naphthaleneacetic acid. Produced shoots were bisected longitudinally and cultured in a fresh medium from the same composition, other half shoots were subjected to a second cut by dividing transversely into distal and proximal explants before culture. About 80% explants of O. dellini produced flowers which produced shoots form the distal ales. only shoots were formed from O. cochenillifera explants. The distal explants produced more shoots than proximal explants. All formed shoots which attained 3 mm in length or longer were rooted directly in soil and all shoots formed roots and produced normal plants.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

Neem is considered to be one of the most promising plants for producing pesticides, pharmaceutical, as well as many commonplace materials. A protocol for shoot formation from nodal and stem explants is described. Stem nodes and stem segments were obtained from mature tree and cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), and 0.5 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem node explants produced multiple shoots which were separated and cultured on MS supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, 0.5, or 0.9 uM TDZ with 0.5 uM NAA. Stem explants produced callus which regenerated shoots upon transfer to a fresh medium. Formed shoots produced roots in proliferation medium or rooted in MS supplemented with 3.3 uN indolebutyric acid, and were transferred to soil. Number of produced shoots increased with increasing TDZ concentration but shoot and root length decreased.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

Grand crinum Lily is an ornamental plant which is considered to be one of the architect's favorite accent. plants and one that bloom most of the year. A protocol for plant propagation from inflorescence is described. Explants were excised from inflorescence at the primordial stage. and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS: alone or supplemented with benzyladenine 4.4 or 13.3 uM benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and incubated for four weeks. Explants cultured on BA-containing media produced white flower-like structures on the receptacle which produced multiple shoots after additional four weeks on a fresh medium containing 4.4 uM BA and 0.05 uM NAA. Shoots were transferred to a fresh medium for further growth during which the basal stem reached 3 to 5 mm diameter. At this stage shoots, with or without roots, were transferred to soil, without acclimatization, and normal plants were established in soil.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

Pltaya is a member of the family Caztacaae and the genus Hylocerus which has several species producing edible fruits. A procedure for micropropagation of pitaya using thidiazuron is described. Explants were excised from young joints of mature plants, and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 0.5 uM Thidiazuron (TDZ), and 3.5 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) Produced shoots were cut longitudinally into three explants or decapitated and cultured on MS supplemented with 0.01, 0.09, 0.5, or 0.9 uM TDZ with 0.5 uM NAA. Decapitated expiants produced shoots with higher frequency and number of shoots was higher than 1/3 explants. Shoots produced from decapitated explants were longer, thicker and vigorous, compared to shoots developed from 1/3 explants. Most shoots developed from, the distal part in both explants and produced several lateral shoots from axillary buds. Shoots were rooted in MS then transferred to soil and produced normal plants.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

Culantro is a perennial herb with odor like that of corinder, native to tropical America and the West Indies. Explants were excised from leaf petiole of mature culantro plant. Explants were cultured on MS alone or supplemented with 4.4, or 13.3 uM BA with 0.5 uM NAA, or supplemented with 0.3, 1.8, 4.5, or 3 uM Thidiazuron (TDZ) wth 0.5 uM NAA. leaf explants formed callus and were transferred to the same medium for shoot induction. Only explants which were cultured on MS supplemented with 13.3 uM BA or 0.9, l.8, 4.5, or 3 UM TDZ produced shoots. Shoots were regenerated in all TDZ-containing media with high 100% frequency. Shoot number increased with the increase of TDZ concentration but shoot length decreased. Although cytokinins are reported to inhibit root initiation, regenerated shoots formed roots with 100% frequency in BA-and TDZ-containing media. Regenerated shoots were transferred to MS containing 3.9 UM TDZ for further growth. Rooted shoots were transferred to soil and normal plants were obtained.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen and Walter E. Splittstoesser

A micropropagation procedure was developed to regenerate plants via tissue culture from explants of harvested and stored French endive (Cichorium intybus L. Witloof). The procedure permits the rescue of French endive germplasm that shows resistance to postharvest physiological disorders and diseases. The procedure was used successfully to regenerate plants which showed resistance to different undesirable marketable traits.. Under a long day photoperiod, a high percentage of the explants produced flowers in vitro. Thidiozuron was used successfully to regenerate plants from small leaf explants.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen, Walter E. Splittstoesser, and Richard E. Litz

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Y. Mohamed-Yasseen, T. L. Davenport, W. E. Splittstoesser, and R. M. Skirvin

A method for regeneration of somatic embryogenesis from witloof chicory is described. Explants were taken from leaf veins of stored witloof chicory. Internal bacterial infection was found in 100% of the leaf bases but decreased gradually toward the leaf tips. Bacterial free explants were taken from the distal third and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 1.3 uM 2,4-D, 1.3 uM kinetin, and 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate. A pale yellowish, nodular callus formed after 4 weeks and were maintained in the same medium for 8-12 months with one change to a fresh medium every 4 weeks. Callus were suspended in the same medium without agar for 4-6 weeks with one change to a fresh medium every 2 weeks. Embryo-like structure appeared upon transfer to MS liquid medium containing 1.8 uM benzyladenine. Embryo germination was accomplished in 1/4 strength of MS medium with 01 without 1 g/L activated charcoal.

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Y. Mohamed-Yasseen, T. L. Davenport, W. E. Splittstoesser, and R. M. Skirvin

Bulb formation in vitro is considered to be advantageous over shoot formation. Bulbs were farmed in vitro from onion inflorescence explants cultured in bulb induction medium composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 120 g/l sucrose and 5 g/l activated charcoal under long day photoperiod. Bulbs were also induced in the same medium from shoots which were first regenerated from onion inflorescences in MS alone or MS containing either 4.4 uM benzyladenine or 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 01 0.1 uM of thidiazurone. This system of in vitro bulb formation obviates shoot elongation, rooting, and acclimatization steps normally required when shoots are regenerated.