A double-flowered periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.] mutant TYV1 was identified and the morphology and inheritance of the double-flowered phenotype was studied. TYV1 has an outer salverform whorl of petals and an additional inner funnel-shaped whorl of petals originating from the apex of the corolla. The apex of corolla tube forms a narrow opening. There are hairs under the opening at the apex. The stigma in this mutant is set below the anthers. The overlap between the top end of the pistil and bottom ends of anthers in TYV1 flowers at 1 to 2 days after anthesis is 0.56 ± 0.01 mm. TYV1 could be used as either the male or female parent in crossing. Self-pollinated TYV1 produced all double-flowered progeny compared with self-pollinated single-flowered cultivars Little Pinkie and Titan Burgundy, which produced all single-flowered progeny. F1 plants between TYV1 and ‘Little Pinkie’ or ‘Titan Burgundy’ were all single. Three F2 populations segregated into 3 single: 1 double ratio. Backcrossing F1 to seed parents also indicated that a double-flowered form was controlled by a recessive allele. A single dominant gene expressed in the homozygous or heterozygous state resulted in the single-flowered phenotype. All the young seedlings of self-pollinated TYV1 and double-flowered progeny had distorted leaves before the sixth pair of leaves emerged.
Chin-Mu Chen, Tzu-Yao Wei and Der-Ming Yeh
Huan-Keng Lin, Tzu-Yao Wei, Chin-Mu Chen and Der-Ming Yeh
Stem anatomy and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were compared between upright and trailing cultivars of periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (G.) Don.]. The inheritance of growth habit and flower form was also studied. Internode cross sections revealed that phloem fiber was distributed at the inner cortex in upright cultivars but not in trailing cultivars. Except the youngest internode, the upright ‘Vitesse Pink’ had the highest MOE throughout the 1st–13th internodes above the cotyledon. The more trailing ‘Cora Cascade Strawberry’ had consistently lower MOE than a less trailing ‘Cora Cascade Polka Dot’. All F1 plants between upright and trailing cultivars were upright, and the F2 generation derived from self-pollinating F1 fit a 3 upright : 1 trailing segregation ratio. All F1 plants between upright/double-flower and trailing/single-flower exhibited upright and single-flowers, whereas plants in the F2 generation fitted a 9 upright/single-flower : 3 trailing/single-flower : 3 upright/double-flower : 1 trailing/double-flower ratio. New double-flowered periwinkle selections with trailing growth habit were successfully developed from the F2 population.
Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu and Travis Robert Alexander
Two studies were performed in Mount Vernon, WA, to identify bulb fennel (Foeniculum ×vulgare) cultivars and seeding practices best suited for the region. The first study evaluated 13 cultivars (Bronze, Finale, Florence, Genesi, Idillio, Orazio, Orion, Perfection, Preludio, Solaris, Tauro, Tenace, and Zefa Fino) over the course of 2 years; during the second year, the additional main factor of the seeding date was included. The second study evaluated three bulb fennel cultivars (Finale, Tauro, and Zefa Fino), four seeding dates (17 May, 31 May, 14 June, and 28 June 2018), and two planting methods (direct and transplant). Results of the two studies demonstrated that ‘Finale’, ‘Orazio’, ‘Preludio’, ‘Solaris’, and ‘Tenace’ had the greatest bulb production rate and yield and good bulb quality that met marketability standards. ‘Genesi’, ‘Orion’, and ‘Perfection’ had good bulb production during only 1 of the 2 years, whereas ‘Bronze’, ‘Florence’, ‘Idillio’, and ‘Zefa Fino’ had very low bulb productivity both years due to bolting. ‘Perfection’ and ‘Tauro’ exhibited internal cracking both years (incidence rates of 9.5% and 12.8%, respectively). The first harvest was 94 to 112 days after seeding during the first study. Direct seeded bulb fennel required 32 fewer days to harvest than transplanted bulb fennel during the second study. The average bulb circumference was 28.1 cm, with little variation between studies. Bulb tenderness for both studies was 617 g-force, on average, and the soluble solids concentration of bulbs in both studies was 4.9%. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on 38 tentatively identified compounds demonstrated no difference in the phenolic content of bulb fennel due to the cultivar. In conclusion, bulb fennel cultivars well-suited for production in northwest Washington were identified and direct seeding was demonstrated to be a better planting method than transplanting.