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Y. H. Yang

Vegetable crops supply esseential vitamina and minerals for human nutrition and survival. However, most scientists concentrated their effort on crops low in nutrition value, causing much health problem in the developing world. In Asia alone, 300,000 children blind each year due to vitamin A deficiency and 40% population suffered from iron-deficient anemia. Their health and social consequence was unmeasurable. A practical remedy was to increase consumption of DGLVs through home garden program.

Field experiment conducted in East-West Center in Hawaii documented that a 200 sq. ft. small garden could yield vegetable fulfilling RDA of 5 people 200% of vitamin A value and ascorbic acid, 27% iron and 9% protein. Promotion of home garden program requires research, training and education, codination, and policy support. Horticulturists should play important role on all these aspects.

Seeds for Peace Project and proposal for establishing home garden training centers at different levels will be reported.

Open access

Qin Yang and Yan Fu

Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (E. japonica)], a small genus of the subtribe Malinae that consists of ≈30 species, is an evergreen rosaceous fruit tree that is native to southeastern China, and some wild species that possess novel, favorable traits have excellent breeding potential. For example, Eriobotrya bengalensis blooms in late spring and ripens in early autumn in Guizhou Province, China, which prevents cold injury in winter by breeding spring-flowering cultivars using the special characters. Therefore, in the present study, the pollination treatments of cut-style pollination were evaluated that may promote successful distant hybridization in Eriobotrya japonica ‘Dawuxing’ × Eriobotrya deflexa and E. japonica ‘Dawuxing’ × E. bengalensis. The results indicated that the impairment of the pollen tube growth in the upper third of the style after pollen germination is an important factor leading to the failure of distant hybridization between the species tested in E. japonica, and that cut-style pollination can effectively overcome prefertilization barriers of the distant hybridization combination. Furthermore, the results of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) showed that S-genotypes, in accordance with the S-RNase heredity to separate the rule completely in offspring, should be both parents' S-RNase, and that the random 50 seedlings of Eb-2 and Ed-2 are true hybrids.

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Theophilus Asante* and Guochen Yang

The role of plant growth regulators in enhancing axillary shoot proliferation, callus production and root initiation of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was investigated. Micropropagated shoots were used as explant materials. Different concentrations of indoleburytic acid (IBA), kinetin, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-pheylurea (CPPU), naphtha-leneacetic acid (NAA), thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were added to McCown woody plant medium (WPM) to evaluate their effects on in vitro shoot proliferation, callus production, and root initiation. Differences in the number of shoots (primordia), morphology of micropropagated shoots, and amount of callus were observed between the plant growth regulator treatments and concentrations. Explants cultured in media containing CPPU or TDZ produced more shoots (primordia). Callus production increased from NAA to IBA to 2,4-D to 2,4,5-T.

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Wei Qiang Yang*

In a 2-year study, the decomposition rates (changes in carbon to nitrogen ratio) of two kinds of sawdust used for blueberry production were determined. The effects of sawdust age and nitrogen application rates on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of two sawdust types were evaluated. When nitrogen was not applied, the C:N ratio in fresh and aged sawdust decreased 30% and 10% respectively over a 1-year period, indicating fresh sawdust decomposed faster than aged sawdust when used as a surface mulch. However, the C:N ratios between soils amended with aged and fresh sawdust were similar when no nitrogen was added, suggesting the age of sawdust does not affect the decomposition rate once the sawdust is incorporated into the soil. It was found that two nitrogen application rates (150 kg·ha-1 vs. 50 kg·ha-1) had an equal affect on the C:N ratio of both sawdust types. Nitrogen application had no affect on the C:N ratio of both sawdust types when both sawdust were used as soil amendments. Clearly, the decomposition rates of the sawdust were influenced by sawdust age and nitrogen application rates.

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Yang Gao and Deying Li

Foliar application of fertilizers on turfgrass via overhead fertigation or spray can improve nutrient absorption efficiency and uniformity. Foliar fertilizers can also be combined with other chemical applications to save labor and energy. However, foliar application of nitrogen may result in root growth reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a liquid organic amendment can be tank-mixed with liquid fertilizer to improve creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) performance. This greenhouse study was conducted on ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass grown in sand or 90 sand:10 peat (v/v) root zones. Three fertilizer packages (4N–0P–0.8K, 29N–0.9P–2.5K, and 20N–8.8P–16.6K) with or without the organic amendment, a liquid suspension derived from naturally mined humic materials, were tested in the study. Tank-mixing organic amendment resulted in better or same turfgrass visual quality and lower clipping yield compared with foliar fertilization alone. Tank-mixing organic amendment in liquid fertilizers resulted in an average increase of root/shoot biomass ratio from 0.62 to 0.65 grown in the sand-based root zones. The effect of organic amendment was shown in all liquid fertilizers tested except 20N–8.8P–16.6K. The results showed tank-mixing organic amendment with the right liquid fertilizer can reduce mowing frequency without reducing the turf quality. Field work is needed to test if the increased root/shoot biomass ratio by tank-mixing organic amendment with liquid fertilizer can contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass maintained at fairway height in sand-based root zones.

Free access

Yang Yang, Zhongkui Jia, Faju Chen, Ziyang Sang, and Luyi Ma

The rare species Magnolia wufengensis frequently suffers from freezing injury in northern China. To investigate the influence of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application on the natural cold acclimation of M. wufengensis, physiological and biochemical changes in field-grown M. wufengensis seedlings subjected to foliar ABA treatments at four concentrations (0, 300, 600, and 900 mg·L−1) were evaluated from Sept. 2012 to Jan. 2013. The optimum foliar application concentrations of ABA for M. wufengensis were between 600 and 900 mg·L−1, which led to faster shoot growth cessation, leaf senescence, and development rates of bud endodormancy level and shoot freezing tolerance. The improved freezing tolerance under exogenous ABA application was associated with promoted dehydration and accumulation of proline, soluble protein, and certain soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose. Foliar ABA treatments initiated a cascade of steps for advancing the cold acclimation process of M. wufengensis. We suggest that exogenous ABA application may be used on M. wufengensis grown in northern China, where there are short growing seasons and early fall frost events.

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Leqi Yang, Xiao Yang, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Huang, and Dongqin Tang

Overhead irrigation is widely used to water lettuce during commercial production in China but exerts potential water wastage and pollution. Subirrigation is thought as a water-saving, high-efficiency fertigation strategy. However, few studies have compared the nutritional value and nitrate content of lettuce grown using subirrigation with plants cultivated with overhead irrigation. Therefore, this study explored the ability of ebb-and-flow subirrigation strategies to produce high yields of a leafy lettuce (cultivar Biscia Rossa) with high nutritional value and low nitrate content. Lettuce plants were cultivated in an ebb-and-flow subirrigation system with different irrigation frequencies (every 2 or 3 days) and immersion times (5, 10 or 15 minutes); overhead irrigation was used as control. Ebb-and-flow subirrigation significantly enhanced several lettuce growth parameters, significantly increased the level of vitamin C, and significantly decreased the nitrate content of lettuce leaves compared with overhead irrigation. The optimal subirrigation strategy for lettuce production was irrigation every 3 days with 15 minutes immersion; this ebb-and-flow subirrigation protocol could potentially be used to save water and resources, improve yield and nutrient contents and reduce nitrate content in commercial greenhouse lettuce production.

Free access

Yang Yang, Runfang Zhang, Pingsheng Leng, Zenghui Hu, and Man Shen

The evergreen Ligustrum lucidum (glossy privet) suffers from freezing injury in northern China, where there are short growing seasons and early fall frost events. To investigate the influence of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application on the natural cold acclimation of glossy privet, physiological and biochemical changes in glossy privet seedlings subjected to SA treatments at four concentrations (0, 150, 250, and 350 mg·L−1) were evaluated from Sept. to Dec. 2016. The optimum application concentrations were between 250 and 350 mg·L−1, which led to better freezing tolerance during natural cold acclimation. The improved freezing tolerance under exogenous SA application was associated with the accumulation of chlorophyll, proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugar, and the regulations of gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Salicylic acid treatments started a cascade of steps for advancing the cold acclimation process of glossy privet. We suggest that exogenous SA application may be used on glossy privet grown in northern China.

Full access

Yongfeng Yang, Zhixiao Yang, Shizhou Yu, and Hongli Chen

Organic acid secretion from higher plant roots into the rhizosphere soil plays an important role in nutrient acquisition and metal detoxification; however, their precise functions and the related mechanisms in abiotic stress tolerance remain poorly understood. Tobacco is an important crop plant, so thoroughly elucidating these factors in tobacco is of high priority. In the present study, the activation effect on soil potassium (K), contents of exuded organic acids, and physiological changes in the roots of various tobacco varieties under both normal K supply and K-deficiency stress were investigated. Our results showed that one high-K variety (ND202) exhibited a significantly higher total content of organic acids in the root exudates and the highest available K content in the rhizosphere soil, compared with two common ones (K326 and NC89). Moreover, the high-K tobacco variety was less affected in terms of root vigor under K-deficiency stress, and displayed greater increases in the activities of the stress-resistant enzymes consisting of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). Taken together, these results provide evidence that tobacco roots exude large amounts of organic acids to increase the available K content in the rhizosphere soil and improve the utilization rate of soil K.

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Gouchen Yang and Paul E. Read

BA, IBA and GA3 were incorporated into softwood tissues to be cultured in vitro or rooted as cuttings by adding the plant growth regulators (PGR) at various concentrations to a forcing solution containing 200 mg/l 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate and 2% sucrose. BA and GA3 helped break bud dormancy in autumn-collected stems and increased percent bud-break. IBA inhibited bud break and shoot elongation. Rooting of forced softwood cuttings was enhanced by IBA in the forcing solution, while GA3 inhibited the rooting of plant species tested. When dormant stems were forced with periodic additions of BA (10 mg/l) in the forcing solution, in vitro shoot proliferation was enhanced. However, inclusion of GA3 in the forcing solution reduced shoot proliferation. A pre-forcing NaOCl soak and a pre-forcing treatment with wetting agents accelerated bud break, size and number of shoots available for both micro- and macro-propagation of the woody plant species tested. The forcing solution protocol described is an effective PGR delivery system and it can be used by the propagator to extend the season for obtaining softwood growth suitable for use as in vitro explants or softwood cuttings.