Echinacea purpurea L. is one of the important ornamental and medicinal plant species. Ploidy manipulation is a valuable tool for improving plant quality or production in E. purpurea as well as in many other plants. To study the segregation of pure ploidy plantlets from colchicine-induced ploidy chimeras in E. purpurea, we used a chimera plantlet that consisted of 1.93% diploid, 35.04% tetraploid, and 63.03% octoploid cells as the source material for experiments. The results showed that three factors significantly influenced the segregation, i.e., the component ratios of different ploidy cells in the chimera, the number of sequential passages, and the methods of segregation culture of the chimera plantlets. Other factors, such as explant types (i.e., leaf, petiole, or root) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) concentrations (i.e., 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mg·L−1) occasionally influenced the segregation. Pure chromosome-doubled polyploids are not easily obtained in various plant species, so segregation culture of ploidy chimeras may potentially be more effective. The morphological characteristic and content of cichoric acid were compared among diploid, tetraploid, and octoploid plants. Results indicated that tetraploid and octoploid plants had more stunted growth, larger stomata, lower stomata frequency, more chloroplast number in guard cells, and higher cichoric acid content than original diploid lines.
Qingling Li, Yuesheng Yang, and Hong Wu
Yuanli Wu, Ganjun Yi, Hu Yang, Birong Zhou, and Jiwu Zeng
MS is the most commonly used basal medium for the micropropagation of banana (Musa spp.), in which inorganic N source consists of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N, and NH4 +:NO3 - = 1:2. In the present study, basal medium for rooting culture was modified by supplying NO3 --N as the sole N source at the concentration of 17.80 to 19.78 mmol·L-1. Not only was the percentage of qualified plantlets higher than that of MS or ½ MS, but the cost for medium preparation (per liter) was about $0.6 lower than that of MS based on local retail price, for the concentration of N decreased from about 60 mmol·L-1 to nearly 20 mmol·L-1. The effects of four factors: sucrose (25 to 35 g·L-1), NAA (0.2 to 1.0 mg·L-1), IBA (0.2 to 1.0 mg·L-1), and basal medium with modified N source on the percentage of qualified plantlets were studied by using orthogonal design. The variance analysis of data showed that all the four factors significantly affected the process of rooting culture. Among them, sucrose was the most important factor, followed by revised basal medium, IBA, and NAA. The optimal medium for rooting culture was BM II supplemented with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA, and 0.5 mg·L-1 IBA. During the following acclimation phase, >90% of plantlets survived. Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Wei Wu, Shijia Wen, Tangkai Feng, Guoke Chen, and Bo Yang
Loropetalum chinense, one of three species in its genus in China, is distributed primarily in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces. By establishing a Loropetalum gene bank and reviewing research on its varieties, genetic traits, and genetic diversity, we hope to promote the full yet sustainable use of this valuable, regionally varied natural resource. Our results will help promote the development of a broader resource economy.
Fan Li, Xijun Mo, Lifang Wu, and Chunmei Yang
Fan Li, Guoxian Wang, Rongpei Yu, Min Wu, Qinli Shan, Lifang Wu, Jiwei Ruan, and Chunmei Yang
We investigated the effects of different planting seasons and gibberellic acid treatments on the growth and development of Gypsophila paniculata to explore new approaches to controlling the flowering period. Four different cultivars were selected and continually planted in July, September, and November in the low-latitude and high-altitude region of Kunming, China (25° N, 102° E). Results showed that the vegetative growth and flowering time of Gypsophila paniculata were prolonged and postponed when the planting time was delayed. Specifically, ‘My Pink’ showed 20% and 80% rosette rates when grown in autumn and winter, respectively, thus indicating that Gypsophila paniculata is sensitive to planting time. Moreover, GA3 treatment not only can significantly promote vegetative growth but also can stimulate early flowering and suppress the occurrence of rosettes during winter. This is more specific to ‘My Pink’, which showed 40% and 80% reductions in rosette rates with four and eight GA3 treatment applications, respectively. Our study showed that seasonal variations in the growth and development of Gypsophila paniculata and GA3 treatment can effectively stimulate early flowering and suppress rosettes during winter.
Yingchao Lin, Dejun Kong, Zhihong Wang, Yi Chen, Zhixiao Yang, Chun Wu, Hui Yang, and Lili Chen
Tobacco is traditionally an industrial crop that is used for manufacturing cigarettes. However, due to health concerns and global tobacco control movements, alternative uses of tobacco are urgently needed to support tobacco farmers and vendors. Tobacco is also an oilseed crop with an oil yield ranging from 30% to 40 of its dry weight. However, there is still no information on the effects of nitrogen application on tobacco seed yield and seed oil production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization (90, 120, 150, and 180 kg·ha−1 N) on the seed yield, oil content, fatty acid composition, and seed germination characteristics of tobacco plants at two locations. The results showed that applying increasing amounts of N to tobacco plants significantly increased their total seed yields and oil content. Nitrogen application also modified the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, as more unsaturated fatty acids were produced under the increasing N application rate treatments than under the control. Moreover, increasing the N application rate generally significantly increased the yields of individual fatty acids as well. Nevertheless, the increased seed oil content and altered fatty acid composition did not affect seed germination traits, as the seed germination potential and rate showed no obvious change among treatments or the control. The height and size of the tobacco plants also increased with the increasing N application rate, which would be beneficial for increasing biomass production for bioenergy. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of increasing the seed and oil yields and modifying the fatty acid composition of tobacco plants by increasing N addition.
Shanshan Seng, Jian Wu, Jiahui Liang, Fengqin Zhang, Qiuyan Yang, Junna He, and Mingfang Yi
Starch accumulation is important during com development. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in starch synthesis. AGPL is the large subunit of AGPase. Here, we isolated and characterized the large subunit of AGPase gene GhAGPL1 in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus). GhAGPL1 was highly expressed in sink organs (cormels and corms). The expression of GhAGPL1 was induced by glucose, sucrose, and mannitol, and it was repressed by abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression of GhAGPL1 in the arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) apl1 mutant resulted in complementation of AGPase activity and thus starch synthesis. Silencing GhAGPL1 in gladiolus decreased the transcript level of GhAGPL1 and GhSus, and resulted in the reduction of AGPase activity and starch content in gladiolus corm and cormel. Meanwhile, sucrose content was higher in GhAGPL1-silenced corm. Surprisingly, silencing GhAGPL1 in gladiolus produced smaller corms and fewer number of cormels. Overall, GhAGPL1 contributed to the quality and quantity of gladiolus corms and cormels.
Fure-Chyi Chen, Wan-Ling Wu, Chun-Hua Pan, Irwin Yau-Yuan Chu, and Yau-Wen Yang
Molecular markers by random amplified polymorphic DNAs were used to evaluate the genetic variation among different Oncidium accessions. It is possible to distinguish different registered Oncidium hybrids, including Gower Ramsey, Sweet Sugar, and Taka using nine random primers. Furthermore, variation was also detected within different cultivars derived from same hybrids. For example, several cultivars of Gower Ramsey could be distinguished based on molecular markers. Based on dendrogram, the investigated cultivars were clustered into several groups. Onc. Gower Ramsey and its selected cultivars were in one group. Onc. Sweet Sugar, Onc. Taka and Onc. Sharry Baby `Sweet Fragrance' were clustered in separate groups.
Jiang-Chong Wu, Jing Yang, Zhi-Jian Gu, and Yan-Ping Zhang
By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capturing method, a total of 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), a useful multipurpose tree. Twenty-four domesticated individuals, with germplasms of India and Myanmar, were used to screen polymorphism of these 20 microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity varied from 0.3608 to 0.7606 and from 0.0000 to 0.8750, respectively. Seven loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The availability of these microsatellite primers would provide a powerful tool for aspects of detailed population genetic studies of M. oleifera.
Liu Yang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhijiang Wu, Yajun Wang, Zhihong Guo, Yubao Zhang, and Ruoyu Wang
The oriental hybrid lily (Lilium oriental cv. Sorbonne) is an economically important flower noted for its pink petals. Flower quality is determined by plant height, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. The commercial value can be increased by improving flower quality through cultural practices such as exogenous application of hormones; however, information on this practice is unavailable for this lily hybrid. In the present study, we soaked lily bulbs for 24 hours in one of four concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) or one of three concentrations of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone before subjecting the bulbs to a cold storage treatment at 4 °C. During cold storage, bulbs were sampled and buds were collected every 10 days for 80 days (that is, lasting eight times). The ABA and gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) contents of buds of treatments that showed a significant difference with the control were measured in a 10-day interval. Greenhouse experiments with different cold storage durations of bulbs that measured height, flower number per plant, and flower diameter were conducted. The interaction of hormone treatments and cold storage duration played nonsignificant roles in parameters of flower quality. Exogenous fluridone application to bulbs at 12 mg·L−1 improved flower quality: height and flower number increased significantly compared with the control, but flower diameter did not change. ABA had no effect on flower quality. Because the fluctuation of endogenous GA3 is more remarkable than ABA after the application of fluridone that led to the improvement of flower quality, it can be inferred that this influence on flower quality is achieved through fluridone’s regulation on the content of endogenous GA3. A low endogenous GA3/ABA ratio was associated with improved flower quality: 12 mg·L−1 fluridone decreased the GA3/ABA ratio in most times of the cold treatment. In addition, cold storage duration affected flower quality; the 50-day cold storage can achieve the highest height, the most flower number, and bigger flower diameter simultaneously. The results of the present study suggest that soaking bulbs in 12 mg·L−1 fluridone before cold treatment followed by 50 days of cold storage before planting will increase plant height and flower number per plant.