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- Author or Editor: Yang Wang x
In this investigation, changes in growth and photosynthetic parameters were used to explain the effects of drought stress on morphology and photosynthesis of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine the content of eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E, isofraxidin, hyperoside, rutin, and kaempferol under different drought stress conditions to explain the effects of drought stress on secondary metabolism of Eleuthero. Growth and photosynthetic physiological parameters showed that drought stress could inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of Eleuthero. The compounds studied showed the same cumulative trend in various organs of Eleuthero under different drought stress conditions, with the highest content in the moderate drought stress group and the lowest in the severe drought stress group. Among them, the content of eleutheroside B was found to be higher in the 5-year-old stem. The content of eleutheroside E was higher in the 3-year root. The content of isofraxidin was highest in the 5-year-old root. The content of hyperoside, rutin, and kaempferol were higher in the 3-year-old leaves. The results show that a wet soil environment was beneficial to growth and photosynthesis of Eleutherococcus senticosus, and moderate drought stress is conducive to the accumulation of its active ingredients.
Brassica rapa var. rapa (turnip) is considered a main source of food for the inhabitants of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its adjacent highlands when other crops are scarce. The QTP ranges from lat. 25.59°N to 39.49°N and from long. 73.29°E to 104.40°E, whereas the Yunnan Plateau ranges from lat. 20.00°N to 29.16°N and from long. 96.00°E to 110.19°E. A comparison between the turnip landraces of two different plateau environments can provide a mechanistic insight into plant adaptation in highlands. The aim of this investigation was to understand the patterns in variation in genome size (GS) between the turnip landraces of two plateau environments. We used a well-established protocol to count chromosome number and performed propidium iodide flow cytometry to measure GS. No polyploidy was detected among the turnip landraces tested, and 15.5% variation in GS was observed between the landraces. No consistent pattern pertaining to GS variation emerged after the environmental variables were considered. Thus, we propose that such pattern may reflect the indirect effect of selection, random process, genetic drift, or some other factors on GS through interaction of life-form and phenotypic traits.
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. is a perennial turfgrass for its low management and resistance. To develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for C. aciculatus, we used four Roche 454 pyrosequencing, combined with the magnetic bead enrichment method FIASCO (fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats) to isolate from the C. aciculatus. A total of 66,198 raw sequencing reads were obtained with 4289 sequences (6.48%) were fit for primer pair design. One hundred microsatellite loci were selected to test the primer amplification efficiency in 20 accessions, and out of these, 11 loci were polymorphic. The amount of observed alleles ranged from three to six, with an average of 3.64. Nei’s genetic diversity values ranged from 0.085 to 0.493, with an average of 0.293. Shannon’s information index values ranged from 0.141 to 0.686, with an average of 0.428. Twenty accessions were clustered into three groups by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). These SSR markers will provide an ideal marker system to assist with gene targeting, cultivar variety or species identification, and marker-assisted selection in C. aciculatus species.
This study aimed to investigate the flowering biological characteristics, floral organ characteristics, and pollen morphology of Camellia weiningensis Y.K. Li. These features of adult C. weiningensis plants were observed via light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pollen viability and stigma receptivity were detected using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazole chloride (TTC) staining and the benzidine–hydrogen peroxide reaction method. C. weiningensis is monoecious, with alternate leaves and glabrous branchlets. Its flowering period lasts 2 to 4 months, and the flowering time of individual plants lasts ≈50 days, with the peak flowering period from the end of February to the middle of March. It is a “centralized flowering” plant that attracts a large number of pollinators. Individual flowers are open for 12 to 13 days, mostly between 1230 and 1630 hr, and include four to six sepals, six to eight petals, ≈106 stamens, an outer ring of ≈24.6-mm-long stamens, an inner ring of ≈13.4-mm-long stamens, one pistil, and nine to 12 ovules. The flowers are light pink. The style is two- to three-lobed and 16.6 mm long, showing a curly “Y” shape. The contact surface of the style is covered with papillary cells and displays abundant secretory fluid and a full shape, facilitating pollen adhesion. The pollen is rhombohedral cone-shaped, and there are germ pores (tremoids). The groove of the germ pore is slender and extends to the two poles (nearly reaching the two poles). The pollen is spherical in equatorial view and trilobate in polar view. The pollen vitality was highest at the full flowering stage, and the stigma receptivity was greatest on days 2 to 3 of flowering. The best concentration of sucrose medium for pollen germination was 100 g/L. The number of pollen grains per anther was ≈2173, and the pollen-to-ovule ratio was 23,034:1. C. weiningensis is cross-pollinated. Seventy-two hours after cross-pollination, the pollen tube reached the base, and a small part entered the ovary. The time when the pollen tube reached the base after pollination was later than that in commonly grown Camellia oleifera. The results of this study might lay an important foundation for the flowering management, pollination time selection, and cross-breeding of C. weiningensis.
Radioactive (2–chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) was applied to leaves and fruits of ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato and ‘Pioneer’ cucumber and to seedlings of ‘Yellow Crookneck’ summer squash. During the first day, slightly over 21% of the applied 14C-ethephon was converted to 14C-ethylene by the squash plants, and 10 to 15% was converted by the tomato plants. A week after treatment the rate of 14C-ethylene production decreased rapidly to less than 1% per day. Increases in rates of production of total ethylene following treatment were attributed to the decomposition of ethephon. Radioactive CO2 production was small, amounting to about 0.1% of the 14C applied.
Seven days following treatment of tomato leaves, about 15% of the 14C was translocated to developing fruits and lesser amounts to other parts of the plant. In the squash seedling, from 3 to 9% was translocated after 2 days from the site of application to other tissues. Twenty–five days after application to cucumber leaves, the fruits containted only 0.3% of the applied 14C–ethephon. In the tomato tissue the radioactivity was present as 14C–ethephon, but in the squash seedling tissue much of the radioactivity was present in a new compound.