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  • Author or Editor: Yan Li x
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Small molecules, including H2O2 and Ca, mediate stress signaling and drought tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether improvement in drought tolerance by H2O2 and Ca were associated with the regulation of transcription factors and stress-protective genes in perennial grass species. Plants of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) were sprayed with water (control), H2O2 (9 mm), or CaCl2 (10 mm) and exposed to drought stress for 20 days in controlled-environment growth chambers. Foliar application of H2O2 or Ca led to significant improvement in drought tolerance of creeping bentgrass, as demonstrated by greater turf quality, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability, as compared with the untreated control. The application of H2O2 and Ca resulted in significant up-regulation of genes in Ca signaling transduction pathways [Ca-dependent kinase 26 (CDPK26), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), and 14-3-3] and transcript factors (WRKY75 and MYB13). For genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, H2O2 mainly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) expression, while Ca primarily improved transcript levels of SOD, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and GR. In addition, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), metallothionein 1 (MT1), and glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) were also markedly up-regulated by H2O2 and Ca under drought stress. However, the transcript level of lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) was significantly down-regulated by H2O2 and Ca under well-watered and drought conditions. These results imply that H2O2 and Ca commonly or differentially regulate genes expression in association with drought tolerance through activating Ca signaling pathway and regulating transcription factors and stress-protective genes expression, leading to the alleviation of lipid peroxidation, maintenance of correct protein folding and translocation, and enhancement of nitrogen metabolism under a prolonged period of drought stress in creeping bentgrass.

Open Access
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Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a nonprotein amino acid in plant cells, which responds to changes in environmental factors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of foliar spray of GABA on drought and heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), and to investigate physiological factors altered by GABA application that contribute to improved drought tolerance and heat tolerance. GABA-treated plants (cv. Penncross) or non-GABA-treated control plants were then subjected to the following three treatments in growth chambers: 1) nonstress control [plants irrigated every 2 days to maintain soil water content at the pot capacity and maintained at 21/19 °C (day/night) for 35 days], 2) heat stress [plants exposed to 35/30 °C (day/night) and well-watered conditions for 35 days], and 3) drought stress [plants unirrigated for 9 days and maintained at 21/19 °C (day/night), and then rewatered for 2 days]. As compared with untreated plants, GABA-treated plants showed 22% to 39% and 8% to 21% significantly lower leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) and 35% to 143% and 21% to 24% significantly higher turf quality (TQ), 8% to 17% and 17% to 24% relative water content (RWC), 22% to 39% and 25% to 27% chlorophyll content, 7% to 11% and 6% to 17% photochemical efficiency, and an 84% to 683% and 57% to 76% osmotic adjustment (OA) exposed to heat or drought stress across days of treatment, respectively. GABA-treated plants accumulated 7% to 10% more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and 11% to 43% more free proline than nontreated plants under heat stress, and 12% to 30% higher accumulation of WSC under drought stress. After 2 days of rewatering, a significantly better recovery also was observed in GABA-treated plants than that in nontreated plants previously exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that foliar application of GABA significantly improved heat and drought tolerance of creeping bentgrass, which was associated with maintenance of cell membrane stability, delaying in leaf senescence, and enhancing OA. The effectiveness of exogenous GABA application was more pronounced under heat stress than under drought stress.

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Nonflowering-sized Dutch iris bulbs 'Telstar' were treated at 20 °C in a flow-through system with ethylene-free air or air containing 10 μL.L-1 of ethylene (C2H4) for 1 or 24 hours. Following the treatment, bulbs were placed in a 10 °C cooler for 5 weeks before planting and subsequently forced in a 20 °C day/18 °C night glasshouse. Results demonstrated that a 24-hour C2H4 treatment induced earlier flowering as well as percent flowering. Flowering responses of bulbs treated with C2H4 for 1 hour were the same as those treated with air. The 24-hour ethylene treatment did not affect the combined fresh weight of the daughter bulb and bulblets but reduced the number of bulblets produced by each. The effects of ethylene on the protein changes in the apex were examined at two time periods: immediately after the treatment and after the cold treatment. Each sample consisted of proteins extracted from three apices. There are significant changes in one-dimensional SDS PAGE protein patterns of bulbs apices after treatment with ethylene. However, the differences are apparent after only 1 hour of ethylene treatment. The cold treatment resulted in minimal further changes in protein patterns.

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Abstract

Leaf heat tolerances of ‘Saladette’ (heat tolerant) and ‘UC-82B’ (less heat tolerant) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill) were evaluated after heat acclimation. When plants of both genotypes were grown in a temperature regime below 30°C, there was no difference in heat tolerance. When plants of both genotypes were exposed to a temperature regime of 35° (day/night), ‘UC-82B’ could reach a higher level of heat tolerance, similar to ‘Saladette,’ but ‘UC-82B’ required 6 cycles of high temperature exposure, whereas ‘Saladette’ needed only a single cycle.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

The effects of low temperatures on chilling sensitivity and frost hardiness were investigated in leaf tissues of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). A regime of 20°/15°C (day/night) temperature reduces chilling sensitivity. Subsequently, plants were able to survive at 5°, 2°, and even 0° (day/night) for cold acclimation. Using these stepwise treatments, leaf tissues of ‘Early Cascade’ tomato could be cold-acclimated to tolerate extracellular freezing at -3°, whereas nontreated plants were killed at -1.5°.

Open Access

Paeonia delavayi is a species endemic to Southwest China and an important genetic resource for flower color breeding of tree peonies. The mechanisms underlying the flower coloration of this plant have not been fully elucidated. In this article, the petals of yellow-colored individual (Pl) and purple–red-colored individual (Pd) of P. delavayi were studied. And anatomical observations revealed that a large amount of yellow protoplasts and a small amount of colorless protoplasts were located in the yellow-colored Pl petals, whereas a mixture of purple, red, and pink protoplasts were observed in the purple–red-colored Pd petals. The Pl cells were subrotund and flat, whereas the Pd cells were irregularly polygon-shaped and bulging. Chemical analyses were performed, and the results indicated that significant differences occurred between the cell sap pH of the Pl and Pd flowers and large differences occurred in the contents of Fe and Al between Pl and Pd. Cyanidin- and peonidin-based anthocyanins with flavones and flavonols as copigments determined the Pd flower color, whereas chalcone 2 ′G with apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside and chrysoeriol 7-O-glucoside as copigments determined the yellow color of Pl. Correspondingly, the genes dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were significantly highly expressed in Pd, whereas chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavone synthase (FNS), flavonol synthase (FLS), flavonoid 7-O-glycosyltransferase (7GT), and 2′4′6′4-tetrahydroxychalcone 2′-glucosyltransferase (THC) had high transcript levels in Pl relative to Pd. The results indicate that the color variation of P. delavayi petals may be related to a delicately controlled balance of the aforementioned factors.

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Two eggplant cultivars (Brigitte and Dalong) were stored under ambient conditions for 8 days to examine the postharvest quality and shelf life. Results indicated that the respiration rate, firmness and springiness, and nutritional quality of both eggplant cultivars decreased with the extension of shelf life. On the contrary, opposite trends were observed in weight loss, gumminess, and chewiness of eggplant fruits. In addition, the weight loss of ‘Brigitte’ eggplant fruits was 3.3% and 6.9% lower compared with ‘Dalong’ eggplant fruits at 4 and 8 days after storage. Thicknesses of epidermal cells and the stratum corneum, the epicuticular wax content of ‘Brigitte eggplant fruits increased by 42.9%, 766.7%, and 58.8% compared with ‘Dalong’ eggplant fruits, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the dense wax layer structure. In conclusion, the storage tolerance of ‘Brigitte’ eggplant fruits was higher than that of ‘Dalong’ eggplant fruits due to the higher epicuticular wax content and dense wax layer structure.

Open Access

In this study, in vitro induction of tetraploid Lychnis senno Siebold et Zucc. and its cytological and morphological characterization were conducted. For polyploid induction, nodal segments with axillary buds from in vitro grown plants were kept for 3 days in MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) liquid or solid media added with a series of concentrations of colchicine. Out of total 588 recovered plants, 15 tetraploids and 6 mixoploids determined by flow cytometry analysis were obtained. The tetraploid contained 48 chromosomes, twice the normal diploid number of 24, as observed under light microscope. The tetraploid plants exhibited much larger but less stomata than diploid plants. Moreover, significant differences in stem height and leaf size between the diploid and tetraploid plants were noted. The tetraploid plants were more compact than diploids.

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Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu is endemic to China and has great ornamental value. Little is known about its nutrient requirement for growth and reproduction after deflasking (transplantation of seedlings from culture vessels to pots). We studied the effects of adding nitrogen (N) (0, 105, 210, and 420 mg·L−1) on the vegetative growth and reproduction of P. armeniacum. N enrichment improved leaf area and lengthened the leaf lifespan during the vegetative stage. The effects of N application on flower size were minor. The intermediate N level of 210 mg·L−1 (MN) increased the seed capsule weight, seed germination rate, and improved the growth of seedlings that developed from seeds of MN-treated plants. N fertilizer exerted little influence on ramet emergence and ramet number per plant, but a low N concentration of 105 mg·L−1 promoted the leaf number and leaf area of ramets. Appropriate N levels for P. armeniacum in production and cultivation should be determined according to different production objectives.

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The catabolism of fatty acid (FA) is regarded as a key pathway of aroma volatile compounds in oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa). In our research, two cultivars of oriental sweet melon, Caihong7 and Tianbao, were employed to illuminate which step of the biosynthetic pathway of aroma compounds could be regulated by ethylene (ETH). The role of ETH in determining the profiles of straight-chain aroma volatile compounds, levels of FA as aroma precursors, activities of aroma-related enzymes derived from FA pathway, and expression patterns of key enzymes were investigated. Overall, exogenous application of ETH increased the production rates of endogenous ETH and levels of FA. Compared with control, the level of straight-chain esters, especially the acetate, hexanoate, and hexyl esters, was significantly increased by ETH, whereas the content of alcohol and aldehyde reduced. In addition, the metabolism of free FA included linoleic acid (LA), linolenic acid (LeA), and oleic acid (OA) appeared to be ETH-dependent. The activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) as well as the expression patterns of Cm-ADH1, Cm-ADH2, Cm-AAT1, and Cm-AAT4 were positively regulated by ETH. In contrast, hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) and Cm-AAT2 and Cm-AAT3 seemed to be independent of ETH modulation. These results suggested that the dissimilation of FA included LA, LeA, and OA into the acetate, hexanoate, and hexyl esters mainly through ETH regulating the LOX pathway by enhancing the expression of particular members of aroma-related key enzyme gene families as well as the activities of dehydrogenation and esterification.

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