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  • Author or Editor: Ya Li x
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Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss. (Nyctaginaceae; Bougainvillea) is a popular ornamental plant with vigorous growth, luxuriant blooming, colorful bracts, and a high tolerance to the stresses of temperature, drought, and soil pollution, and thus is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. However, the paucity of information on ploidy and the genomic constitution is a significant challenge to genome research and cultivar improvement. We present a flow cytometry method for ploidy detection in bougainvillea based on evaluating different lysates and tissues, identify the ploidy level of a batch of bougainvillea accessions, and infer the genome size of horticultural species Bougainvillea glabra, Bougainvillea spectobilis, and Bougainvillea peruviana. The results show that tender leaves and woody plant buffer (WPB) were optimal for flow cytometry analysis. The 2C nuclear DNA amounts in 176 bougainvillea accessions ranged from 4.66 ± 0.04 to 12.26 ± 0.1 pg, which represents 161 diploids, 13 triploids, 1 tetraploid, and 1 di-tetraploid mixoploid. For B. glabra, B. spectobilis, and B. peruviana, the mean 1C values were 3.201, 3.066, and 2.915 pg, respectively. The genome size of B. glabra was significantly larger than that of B. peruviana (P = 0.0004), but had no significant variation with that of B. spectobilis (P = 0.1061). These results reveal fundamental cytogenetic information for bougainvillea that are beneficial to whole-genome sequencing and hybrid breeding programs.

Open Access

Anthocyanins are protective pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as fruits and leaves, and are nutritionally valuable components of the human diet. The MYB10 transcription factor (TF) plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Malus crabapple leaves. However, little is known about how the promoter regulates McMYB10 expression and influences the substantial variation in leaf anthocyanin accumulation and coloration that is observed in different crabapple cultivars. In this study, we analyzed leaf coloration, anthocyanin levels, and the expression levels of McMYB10 in the leaves of 15 crabapple cultivars with three leaf colors at various development stages, and showed that the expression of McMYB10 correlates positively with anthocyanin accumulation. We also examined the relationship between the number of R6 and R1 elements in the McMYB10 promoters of the different cultivars and the pigmentation of the new buds of spring-red cultivars, as well as the methylation level of the McMYB10 promoters at different development stages in three representative crabapple cultivars. The ratio of R6/R1 minisatellites in the promoters correlated with the color and anthocyanin accumulation in new crabapple buds, and we concluded that the differences in promoter structure and methylation level of the McMYB10 promoters coordinately affect the leaf color of crabapple cultivars.

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